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How we acquire scientific concepts

-based on the results of research on the influence of schooling

on the development of everyday concepts-

 

‹g‰ª—º‰qi‘—§‹³ˆç­ôŒ¤‹†Šj

YOSHIOKA Ryoei, National Institute for Educational Policy Research

“¡“c„Žu (ç—t‘åŠw)

FUJITA Takeshi, Chiba University

ƒVƒ…ƒeƒtƒ@ƒ“EƒJƒCƒU[i’}”g‘åŠwj

Stefan KAISER, Tsukuba University

ƒQƒ‹ƒnƒ‹ƒgEƒVƒF[ƒtƒ@[iƒnƒ“ƒuƒ‹ƒN‘åŠwj

Gerhard SCHAEFER, University of Hamburg

ƒŒƒMƒiEƒ}ƒjƒbƒc|ƒVƒF[ƒtƒ@[iƒJ[ƒ‰‚“™ŠwZj

Regina MANITZ-SCHAEFER, Gymnasium Kahla

ƒxƒ‹ƒ“ƒgEƒG[ƒ~ƒbƒqiƒL[ƒ‹‘åŠwj

Bernd OEHMIG, University of Kiel

 

—v  –ñ :–{‰Û‘茤‹†”­•\‚́AŽq‚Ç‚à‚½‚¿‚ª“úí¶Šˆ‚Ì’†‚ÅŠl“¾‚µ‚½ŠT”O‚ªAŠwZ‚ÌŽö‹Æ‚É‚æ‚Á‚ĉȊwŠT”O‚Æ‚µ‚Ä”­’B‚·‚é‰ß’ö‚ÆŠT”O‚Ì•Ï—e‚Ì—lŽq‚ð“ú“Æ‚Å”äŠrŒ¤‹†‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚é‰ÈŒ¤”ï‚É‚æ‚éƒvƒƒWƒFƒNƒg‚Ì’†ŠÔ•ñ‚Æ‚µ‚čs‚¤‚à‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éBŒ¤‹†”­•\‚Ì“à—e‚́A–{•ñ‚É‚Ü‚Æ‚ß‚ç‚ꂽŒ¤‹†¬‰Ê‚É‚»‚ÌŒã‚Ì•ªÍŒ‹‰Ê‚ƍlŽ@‚ð‰Á‚¦‚čs‚¤—\’è‚É‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚éB

  –{•ñ‚Ì“à—e‚́AŽŸ‚̂悤‚ɍ\¬‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚éB

‡T. Œ¤‹†‚Ì–Ú“I‚ÆŠT—v

  Œ¤‹†‚Ì–Ú“I‚ÆŒ¤‹†‚ÌŒo‰ß‚¨‚æ‚уAƒEƒgƒ‰ƒCƒ“‚ðà–¾‚·‚éB

‡U. ƒhƒCƒc‚̉Ȋw‹³ˆç

  ƒhƒCƒc‚Ì‹³ˆç§“x‚Ìà–¾‚ƃhƒCƒc‚É‚¨‚¯‚鍡“ú“I‹³ˆç‰Û‘è‚ðÐ‰î‚·‚éB

‡V. ˜A‘zƒeƒXƒg‚Æ’è‹`ƒeƒXƒg‚É‚æ‚錤‹†

  ˜A‘zƒeƒXƒg‚Æ’è‹`ƒeƒXƒg‚Ì’²¸ƒf[ƒ^‚ðŠî‚É•p“x•ªÍ‚ƃJƒeƒSƒŠ[•ªÍ‚ÌŒ‹‰Ê‚©‚ç‚Ý‚½“ú“Æ‚Ì”äŠrŒ‹‰Ê‚𒆐S‚ɍlŽ@‚·‚éB

‡W. KSƒeƒXƒg‚̏Љî‚Ɛ¬l–ʐڒ²¸‚Ì•ñ

  KSƒeƒXƒg (’mŽ¯‚Æ’mŽ¯‚̏î•ñŒ¹‚ð–₤ƒeƒXƒg) ‚̍\‘z‚ɂ‚¢‚Ä‚Ìà–¾‚Ɛ¬l‚ւ̖ʐڒ²¸‚ÌŒ‹‰Ê‚ɂ‚¢‚ďq‚ׂéB

‡X. ‚j‚rƒeƒXƒg‚É‚æ‚é’mŽ¯‚Əî•ñŒ¹‚ÌŒ¤‹†

@KSƒeƒXƒg‚Ì’²¸ƒf[ƒ^‚Ì•ªÍ‚©‚瓾‚½’mŒ©‚ɂ‚¢‚ďq‚ׂéB

ƒL[ƒ[ƒhF‰ÈŠwŠT”OA“úíŠT”OA˜A‘zƒeƒXƒgA’è‹`ƒeƒXƒgA‚j‚rƒeƒXƒgAŠT”OŒ¤‹†A”äŠrŒ¤‹†A“ú–{AƒhƒCƒc


 


‡T. Œ¤‹†‚Ì–Ú“I‚ÆŠT—v

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‚PD Œ¤‹†‚Ì”wŒi

–{Œ¤‹†‚ª”­‘z‚³‚ꂽ”­’[‚́A“ú–{‚ƃhƒCƒc—¼‘‚̎Љï‚É‚¨‚¯‚鎩‘R‰ÈŠw‚ÌŒyŽ‹‚ª—J—¶‚³‚ê‚é‚ׂ«ó‹µ‚É‚ ‚邱‚ƁA‚»‚¤‚µ‚½ó‹µ‚ÉŽY‹ÆŠEEˆãŠwŠE‚𒆐S‚Æ‚µ‚č‚“™‹³ˆç‚𒸓_‚Æ‚·‚éŠwZ‹³ˆç‚É‚¨‚¯‚鎩‘R‰ÈŠwŒn‚Ì‹³‰ÈA‰È–ڂ̈µ‚¢‚É‹^–â‚â•s–ž‚ª’悳‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚邱‚ƁA‹³ˆç‚ÌŒ»‘㉻‰^“®ˆÈ~AŠwZ‹³ˆç‘S‘̂ɐè‚ß‚é‚»‚ÌŠ„‡‚ª‰º~ü‚ð‚½‚Ç‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚邱‚Æ‚ª‰“ˆö‚Æ‚È‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚éB‚»‚̂悤‚ȏ󋵂̒†‚ʼnȊwŠT”O‚ÌŒ`¬‚Æ”­’B‚ɉʂ½‚·ŠwZ‹³ˆç‚Ì–ðŠ„‚ð–¾Šm‚É‚µ‚Ä‚¨‚­‚±‚Ƃ́A¡Œã‚̉Ȋw‹³ˆç‚̐„i‚É•K—v•s‰ÂŒ‡‚ȏî•ñ‚Å‚ ‚邱‚ƂɈӌ©‚̈ê’v‚ð‚Ý‚Ä–{Œ¤‹†‚ðŒv‰æ‚·‚邱‚Æ‚Æ‚µ‚½B

@‰äX‚ª‰ÈŠwŠT”O‚ƌĂԂà‚̂́AŽ©‘R‰ÈŠw‚ÌŠw–╪–ì‚Å‚»‚Ì“à—e‚ð‹Lq‚ ‚é‚¢‚Í•\Œ»‚·‚邽‚ß‚É—p‚¢‚錾—t‚Å‚ ‚éB‚±‚ÌŒ¾—t‚ðŽ„‚½‚¿‚Í‘å‚«‚­‚R‚‚ɕª‚¯‚čl‚¦‚½B‚ЂƂ‚͊wZ‚ɏオ‚é‘O‚É‚ ‚é‚¢‚ÍŠwZ‚ʼnȊw“I‚ȈӖ¡‚ɂ‚¢‚ÄŠw‚Ô‘O‚ɁAŠù‚É“úí¶Šˆ‚Ì’†‚Å‚»‚ÌŒ¾—t‚ð•·‚«Šo‚¦‚ÄŽg‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚錾—t‚Å‚ ‚éB‚Q‚–ڂ͊wZ‚ÌŽö‹Æ‚ʼnȊw‚ðà–¾‚·‚錾—t‚Æ‚µ‚߂ĊwK‚µA‚»‚ÌŒã‚Ì“úí¶Šˆ‚Ì’†‚Å‚à—p‚¢‚ç‚ê‚é‚悤‚ɂȂ錾—t‚Å‚ ‚éB‚R”Ԗڂ́AŽö‹Æ‚ʼnȊw‚ðà–¾‚·‚錾—t‚Æ‚µ‚ÄŠwK‚µA‚»‚ÌŒã‚à‰ÈŠw‚Ì•¶–¬‚É‚¨‚¢‚Ä‚Ì‚ÝŽg—p‚³‚ê‚é‚¢‚í‚ä‚éê–å—pŒê‚Å‚ ‚éB

@‚±‚Ì‚¤‚¿A‰äX‚ª“Á‚Ɋ֐S‚ð•ø‚¢‚½‚̂́A‚P”Ô–Ú‚Ì“úí“I‚É“¾‚½Œ¾—t‚ªŠwZ‚ÌŽö‹Æ‚É‚æ‚Á‚ĉȊw“I‚ȈӖ¡iŠT”O‚Ì“à•ïj‚ð•t—^‚³‚êA‰ÈŠw“I‚ȈӖ¡‚É‚¨‚¢‚ÄŠÖ˜A‚·‚錾—tiŠO‰„j‚ðŠl“¾‚·‚éƒP[ƒX‚Å‚ ‚éBŽö‹Æ‚ÍŠT”O‚̉Ȋw“I‚Ȑ¸ãk‰»‚É–¾Šm‚È–ðŠ„‚ð‰Ê‚½‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚é‚Ì‚©‚Ç‚¤‚©‚Í‹»–¡‚ª‚à‚½‚ê‚éB‚½‚¾’P‚ɐ¶ŠˆŒoŒ±‚ðÏ‚ݏd‚˂邱‚ƂŁA‰ÈŠw“I‚ȈӖ¡‚ÍŽ©‘R‚ɐg‚ɂ‚­‚Ì‚Å‚Í‚È‚©‚낤‚©‚Æ‚·‚é‹^–₪o‚³‚ê‚éˆê•ûAŽö‹Æ‚ÅŠwK‚µ‚½‚±‚Æ‚Í‚»‚ÌŒã‚Ì“úí¶Šˆ‚É‚æ‚Á‚ÄŒ‹‹Ç‚Í“úíŠT”OƒŒƒxƒ‹‚̈Ӗ¡—‰ð‚É–ß‚Á‚Ä‚µ‚Ü‚¤‚Ì‚Å‚Í‚È‚¢‚©‚Æ‚¢‚¤‘z‘œ‚à‰Â”\‚Å‚ ‚éB‚»‚ê‚䂦‚±‚̃P[ƒX‚ª‰ÈŠwŠT”O‚ÌŒ`¬‚Æ”­’B‚É‹y‚Ú‚·ŠwZ‹³ˆç‚̉e‹¿‚𒲂ׂéã‚ōœK‚Å‚ ‚é‚Æ”»’f‚µ‚½B

 

‚QD“ú–{‚̉Ȋw‹³ˆç‚ðŽæ‚芪‚­ó‹µ‚Æ–â‘è“_

@“ú–{‚̉Ȋw‹³ˆç‚ðŽæ‚芪‚­ó‹µ‚́AŠwZ‹³ˆçAŽÐ‰ïAƒ}ƒXƒRƒ~“™‚Ì•¡ŽG‚È—vˆö‚ªŠÖŒW‚µ‡‚Á‚½•ÂÇ“I‚ȏ󋵂ɊׂÁ‚Ä‚¢‚é‚Ì‚Å‚Í‚È‚¢‚©‚ÆŽv‚í‚ê‚éB

T‹x2“ú§Š®‘SŽÀŽ{‚Æ‚ä‚Æ‚è‚̏[ŽÀ‚Ì‚½‚߂ɁA—ˆ‚镽¬14”N4ŒŽ1“ú‚©‚ç‚̐V‚µ‚¢ŠwKŽw“±—v—̂ł́A‹³‰È‚Ì“à—e‚Í3Š„íŒ¸‚³‚ꂽB“¯Žž‚É‹³‰È‚â‰È–Ú‚Ì‘I‘𐫂̊g‘å‚É‚æ‚藝‰È‚Ì•KCŽžŠÔ”‚àŒ¸­‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚éB‰ÈŠw‚ðŠw‚΂Ȃ­‚Ä‚àŽÐ‰ï‚ɏo‚邱‚Æ‚ª‚Å‚«‚é‚Æ‚¢‚¤‚Ì‚ÍŒ¾‚¢‰ß‚¬‚Å‚ ‚낤‚©B‚·‚łɁA‘åŠw‚ʼnȊw‚ðŠw‚ñ‚Å‚¢‚È‚¢¬ŠwZ‹³Žt‚⍂Z‚Ő¶•¨‚ðŠw‚ñ‚Å‚¢‚È‚¢ˆã‘吶‚Í‘½‚­AŽ©‚ç‚Ì–Ú“I‚Ì‚½‚ß‚É‚Í—]•ª‚È“w—Í‚ª‰ñ”ð‚Å‚«‚éŽÐ‰ï§“x‚Æ‚È‚Á‚Ä‚«‚Ä‚¢‚éB

@‚±‚ê‚Å‚Í‚Ü‚·‚Ü‚·lX‚ª’m—£‚ꂵAŠíŠB‚ª‰ó‚ꂽ‚çC—‚·‚é‚æ‚èV•i‚ðw“üA“d‹…‚ªØ‚ꂽ‚ç“d‹C‰®‚³‚ñ‚É“d˜b‚Æ‚¢‚¤•—’ª‚ª‹­‚܂肱‚»‚·‚êAŠÂ‹«–â‘è‚Ì‰ðŒˆ‚âŽ‘±“IŽÐ‰ï‚ÌŽÀŒ»‚ð’S‚¤‚±‚Æ‚È‚Ç‚Å‚«‚È‚¢‚Ì‚Å‚Í‚È‚¢‚©‚ÆŽv‚í‚ê‚éB

@‚µ‚©‚µ‚È‚ª‚猻ó‚Í‚Ü‚¾‚悵‚Æ‚·‚錋‰Ê‚ª“¾‚ç‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚éB‚h‚d‚`i‘Û‹³ˆç“ž’B“x•]‰¿Šw‰ïj‚Ì‘æ3‰ñ‘Û”ŠwE—‰È‹³ˆç’²¸iTIMSS:1995j ‚ÌŒ‹‰Ê‚É‚æ‚ê‚΁A“ú–{‚Ì’†Šw‚Q”N¶‚Ì—‰È‚Ì“¾“_‚́AƒVƒ“ƒKƒ|[ƒ‹‚ÉŽŸ‚®ãˆÊƒOƒ‹[ƒv‚Ɉʒu‚µ‚Ä‚¨‚èAŽQ‰Á41ƒJ‘•½‹Ï‚ð‘å‚«‚­ã‰ñ‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚éiŽO‘îC1997j B‚½‚¾‚µA¡‰ñ‚Ì’²¸‚É‚¨‚¢‚Ä“ú–{‚ª“ž’B“x‚ŃgƒbƒvƒŒƒxƒ‹‚ðˆÛŽ‚·‚邱‚Æ‚ª¢“ï‚Å‚ ‚낤‚Ƃ́A‘Û“I‚É‚Ý‚½¬E’†ŠwZ‚Ì—‰È‚ÌŽö‹ÆŽžŠÔ”‚Ì‘‰ÁŒXŒü‚ƁAŽóu‚·‚闝‰È‚ÌŽö‹ÆŽžŠÔ”‚Ì‘½‚¢‘‚Ì“ž’B“x‚ª‚‚¢‚Æ‚¢‚¤‰ß‹Ž‚̃f[ƒ^‚©‚çAŠù‚É’²¸Œ‹‰Ê‚ÌŒö•\‘O‚É—\‘z‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚½‚±‚Æ‚Å‚ ‚é (‰Ž“c, 1996) BŽ–ŽÀA–â‘è‚Í1983”N‚Ì‘æ2‰ñ’²¸‚Æ‚Ì”äŠr‚É‚¨‚¢‚āA“_”‚ª‚â‚≺~‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚邱‚Æ‚Å‚ ‚éB‚±‚ÌŠúŠÔ‚É“¾“_‚̐L‚Ñ‚ª‘å‚«‚¢ƒVƒ“ƒKƒ|[ƒ‹AƒCƒ“ƒOƒ‰ƒ“ƒhAŠØ‘AƒAƒƒŠƒJ‚Í‚¢‚¸‚ê‚̍‘‚à‰ÈŠw‹³ˆç‚É—Í‚ð“ü‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚鍑‚Å‚ ‚éB‚Ü‚½A—‰È‚Ì–â‘è‚𕨗E‰»ŠwE¶•¨E’nŠwEŠÂ‹«–â‘è‚»‚Ì‘¼‚Ì‚T‚‚̗̈æ‚É•ª‚¯‚½ê‡‚ɁA“ú–{‚͉»Šw—̈æ‚̐³“š—¦‚Í‘S‘̂̐³“š—¦‚æ‚è‚à’á‚­A’nŠw‚Ɗ‹«–â‘è‚»‚Ì‘¼‚̗̈æ‚Í11ˆÊA10ˆÊ‚Æ‘¼‚̗̈æ‚É”ä‚ׂĂ©‚È‚è’á‚¢B‚±‚ê‚́A‚±‚̗̈悪Ï‹É“I‚ÉŠwKŽw“±‚ªs‚í‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚È‚¢‚±‚Ƃƈê’v‚·‚éB

“¯‚¶‚­‚h‚d‚`‚Ì—‰È‚̍D‚«Œ™‚¢‚ɑ΂·‚é’²¸‚ł́A“ú–{‚Ì’†Šw‚Q”N¶‚Ì—‰È‚ªD‚«‚Ȑ¶“k‚ÌŠ„‡‚ÍŽQ‰Á‘‚ōłà’á‚­‚È‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚éBD‚«‚Å‚Í‚È‚¢‚©‚ç‚»‚ÌŒã‚̎󌱉ȖڂɑI‘ð‚µ‚È‚¢AŽóŒ±‚É•K—v–³‚¢‚à‚̂͐¶‚«‚Ä‚¢‚­ã‚Å‚à•K—v‚È‚¢‚à‚Ì‚Æ‚µ‚ĎЉï‚Ì’†‚ÅŽ©‘R‰ÈŠw‚Ì’mŽ¯‚â“à—e‚ªŒh‰“‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚­ŒXŒü‚É‚Ü‚·‚Ü‚·Š×‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚­‚Ì‚Å‚Í‚È‚¢‚¾‚낤‚©B

 

‚RD Œ¤‹†‚Ì–Ú“I

@–{Œ¤‹†‚Ì–Ú“I‚́A“úí“IŠT”O‚Æ‚µ‚ÄŠl“¾‚³‚ꂽŒ¾—t‚ªA‚»‚ÌŒã‚ÌŠwZ‚Å‚ÌŽö‹Æ‚É‚æ‚è‰ÈŠwŠT”O‚Æ‚µ‚Ä‚ÌŒ¾—t‚̈Ӗ¡‚ð”­’B‚³‚¹‚é—lŽq‚ðAŠwKŽÒ‚ɑ΂·‚éŠT”O’²¸‚ð’Ê‚µ‚Ä–¾‚ç‚©‚É‚·‚邱‚Æ‚Å‚ ‚éB‚Ü‚½AŠT”O‚̉Ȋw“I‚ȈӖ¡‚ɂ‚¢‚Ä‚ÌŠwK‚ªA‚»‚ÌŒã’è’…‚µ‘±‚¯‚é‚à‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚é‚Ì‚©‚ɂ‚¢‚Ä‚à’²¸‚ðs‚¤B‰Á‚¦‚ÄŠT”O‚̉Ȋw“I‚ȈӖ¡‚ªŽö‹Æ‚É—R—ˆ‚·‚é‚à‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚é‚©‚Ç‚¤‚©‚ðŽq‚Ç‚à‚½‚¿‚ÌŽ©ŒÈ\‚É‚æ‚è–¾‚ç‚©‚É‚·‚邱‚Æ‚ð–Ú“I‚Æ‚·‚éB

 

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‡U.  Science Teaching in Germany

 

Regina Manitz-Schaefer

 

1.     Introduction

A main goal of school teaching today, internationally, is a new kind of general education leading young people to international, interdisciplinary and interprofessional flexibility (Schaefer & Yoshioka 2000, 14-16). In an era of globalization and acceleration in science, technology, economy, commerce, politics, and growing uncertainty and risk on the working market this goal is becoming more and more meaningful to the next generation.

    Which contribution to achieving such a „flexibility goalg does the present German school system offer?

    The question is being scrutinized in a research project reported here on the ground of 3 selected concepts from biology („nutritiong), chemistry („metalg), and physics („air pressureg). These concepts play a vital role in everyday life, and it is being studied here which part school takes in their development and understanding.

    To interpret the results properly it is necessary to have some knowledge about the German school system and the situation of teaching in this country.

 

2.     The German school system

In Germany, after re-union of its Eastern and Western part in 1990, there are now 16 „Bundesländerg (corresponding, in some way, to Japanese „prefecturesg) with full educational autonomy. In spite of a high variability among the Länder regarding syllabi, textbooks, teacher training, there is still a common basic structure in the overall school system called „gegliedertes Schulsystemg (multi-channel schooling system). The first 4 to 6 years are comprehensive for all students („Grundschuleg = elementary school) but then follows a splitting-up into either „Hauptschuleg, „Realschuleg (middle school) or „Gymnasiumg, according to different abilities and inclinations of the students. (In comprehensive schools which exist in parallel in many areas, this differentiation is realized school-internally).

    The Hauptschule branch ends up with 9, the Realschule branch with 10, and the Gymnasium branch with 13 years (in some East-German Bundesländer with 12). In East-Germany Hauptschule and Realschule are frequently combined to a „Regelschuleg (regular school) or „Mittelschuleg (middle school) leading to a two-channelled school system.

    According to the educational autonomy of the Bundesländer teaching contents are not the same everywhere in Germany. Also time-tables vary from Bundesland to Bundesland. This pertains in particular to science subjects; biology, chemistry and physics are not being taught in the same grades and not with the same number of lessons. This naturally results in considerable differences in scientific literacy of citizens within the same nation (probably one reason of the just „mediumg results of German students documented in the TIMS study!).

    Especially problematic in the German school system is the rule of free choice of one science subject in the upper secondary level of the Gymnasium and complete cancelling of the two others. This rule was started in West-Germany in the 70ies (and „exportedg to East-Germany in the 90ies replacing there a permeating 3-subject science practice). The rule puts emphasis on scientific methodology rather than contents (which in fact was an excellent idea at the beginning), but with the erroneous assumption one science subject alone would be sufficient for learning this methodology, and ignoring the fact that methods and contents differ considerably between physical sciences on one side and life sciences on the other.

    Students in all Germany now specialize on one science subject (mostly biology) and skip the two others. As a consequence, there is a drastic drawback of basic scientific literacy in Germany and hence of a deeper understanding of scientific (also biological) phenomena. This, in turn, reduces interdisciplinary flexibility instead of increasing it, as claimed above.

 

3.     Knowledge versus understanding?

Science curricula in German schools, in particular in the Gymnasium (on the upper level: in the one subject chosen) are strongly overloaded with contents. Still to-day many science teachers regard a high amount of (sometimes just verbal) knowledge of their students as a high-ranking outcome of teaching. They do not consider enough a deeper understanding of the concepts under study, not even of basic concepts like energy, order, information, structure, system, etc. In the upper secondary grades some teachers seem to have the ambition to train their students up to some kind of university level like „B.Sc.g .

    Educational research, however, like the present project, repeatedly proves that this kind of „extensive trainingg is of short duration only.

    In this project we demonstrate by a modified multiple-choice test called „KS testg (knowledge & sources) what we mean with  „deeper understandingg of scientific knowledge. We also present model definitions on the FA/ FD test sheets prepared for the collaborating teachers. It is shocking to read in the following report by G. Schaefer on FA and FD results how very few upper grade students in Germany are really able to formulate definitions of such a kind constructed from appropriate components.

    Interesting in this connection is the fact that some particles of the package of knowledge taught in school –  e.g. scientific concepts, universal constants, formulas – turn up again in free associations, but not so in free definitions where they would be properly placed. They apparently are just memorized, but not understood. Thus the old pedagogical rule „less is sometimes moreg seems highly relevant for future science teaching in Germany. However, for this in-depth approach and careful reduction of contents both teacher trainers and teachers need a special training in the skill (and knowledge) of „didactic reductiong.

 

4.     „Knowledge disseminationg or „educationg?

Teachers are most essential factors (possibly the most essential one) in education. In Germany just now there is a lively discussion about role, self-understanding and training of teachers. The two main roles of a teacher: „knowledge disseminatorg on one side, and „educatorg on the other, are sometimes exclusively opposed to each other, although in practice they are inclusive, complementary roles and form one whole.

    Up to now science teachers in Germany tend to regard themselves more as disseminators than educators, and thus they often do not want to spend too much time on educational interactions. This is particularly problematic on the lower secondary level, for instance in grades 7 to 9 where students are fast developing and need special educational guidance.

    A most important task of school has ever been „socialization of young individualsg. To-day, however, in a time of disintegrating families, tired and worn-out parents, and of a fast developing „pleasure societyg in Western countries, this task is continuously growing. Parents often do not have the energy, time, or just simply engagement to look after and educate their children. Thus a growing part of educational work is left over to school.

    Observations made in Germany show that still a great number of science teachers do not realize the growing educational demand they are facing: the demand of simultaneous „teaching science and educating childreng. Application of science in everyday life needs education! This may best be demonstrated by a concrete experience recently made by the author in a German Gymnasium: All the knowledge about hygiene, infection, antigene, immune reactions etc. acquired in biology courses did not hinder some 9th-graders who had a heavy cold to throw their infected tissues right across the class-room,  „just for fung.

    This simple example shows the well-known long distance between „knowingg and „doingg, and science teachers in Germany, possibly worldwide, should pay more attention on reducing this distance instead of just increasing the knowledge side!

 

Literature: Schaefer,G./Yoshioka,R.: Balanced Thinking. An educational perspective for 2000+ on the basis of a cross-cultural German/Japanese study.  Peter Lang Publishers: Frankfurt a.Main, Berlin, Bern etc. 2000

 

 

 

‡V.   Investigations with Association and Definition Tests

 

Gerhard Schaefer

 

1.     Introduction

Educational research on studentse achievements in school normally use tests in which logically structured knowledge is examined, like multiple-choice tests, free definition tests, text-analysis tests, the „KS-testg used in this project (see the following article), and others.

    Not so usual, but extraordinarily effective, are tests measuring minute particles, constructive elements of knowledge and their quantitative distribution in memory rather than the whole, like free association, fragmented definition, aspectizing tests etc.. The significance of their results for a full understanding of studentse mental processes and – above all – their behaviour in everyday life was demonstrated already in numerous research projects of the author and explicitly proved in our first Japanese/German cross-cultural study (Schaefer/ Yoshioka 2000; for the methodology in detail see that publication).

    In this project here FA and FD tests were used to find out whether school has a visible influence on the development of everyday concepts such as nutrition, air pressure, and metal. In particular it is the associative framework of the concepts (the husk of the „burrg, see Schaefer 1979) that is of interest in this part of the project. The various detailed questions we have in this context can be subsumed under one general question:

    Is there any evidence that school teaching reaches the „logic coreg of the concepts and thus leads to systematic understanding of subject-matter around them, or is the influence rather restricted to the „outer surfaceg of the concepts and thus remains sporadic, unsystematic, somehow chaotic (but nevertheless important in everyday life) ?

We try to find answers to this question by analyzing free associations and free definitions, the latter including fragmentation to single „definitions elementsg.

 

2.     Pre-analysis: „Associative productivityg

 The first study here is the analysis of studentse creative force in producing associations and definition parts. There are three guiding questions:

1.     Is this creativity age-dependent ?

2.     Is it concept-(possibly subject-)bound ?

3.     Is it country-dependent ?

The fourth question about sex-dependence cannot be treated here for space reasosns.

    Table 1 first shows that the sample sizes used here are in all categories much alike, namely around 100 students. This number has been chozen because in all previous investigations with this methodology it proved to be sufficient to achieve stable results.

    The result of this analysis can best be symbolized by the quotient m/n which represents the average number of associations (or definition elements) per person. The table answers all three questions:  m/n is dependent on age, concept, and country.

 

 

Table 1: „Associative productivityg of German and Japanese students

 

Concept

 

Grade

Free Associations

Free Definitions

Germany

Japan

Germany

Japan

n

m

m/n

n

m

m/n

n

m

m/n

n

m

m/n

 

Nutrition

4 - 5

128     859     6.7

106     430    4.1

128     264    2.1

 96     410     4.3

8 - 9

 99      832     8.4

 89      475    5.3

 99      338    3.4

 89     987    11.1

11 - 12

 97      891     9.2

 91      508    5.6

 97      565    5.8

 91    1000   11.0

 

Air pressure

4 - 5

112     580     5.2

 98      283    2.9

112     121    1.1

 85     286     3.4

8 - 9

102     698     6.8

 85      387    4.6

102     300    2.9

 82     636     7.8

11 - 12

 87      615     7.1

 90      445    4.9

 87      249    2.9

 88     625     7.1

 

Metal

4 - 5

115     760     6.6

107     457    4.3

115     213    1.9

105    386     3.7

8 - 9

 99      788     8.0

 87      448    5.1

 99      328    3.3

 85     792     9.3

11 - 12

137     789     5.8

 98      547    5.6

137     386    2.8

 94     789     8.4

 

    In the free associations, the quotient is rising in both countries from younger to older students, the greatest shift being from grades 4/5 to 8/9 (one exception: in Germany for metal where there is a surprising dropdown from 8/9 to 11/12). This result speaks against the old myth that younger children would generally tend to more lively phantasy and therefore would produce more free associations in response to a given stimulus. Obviously phantasy – at least in connection with everyday phenomena with a clearly scientific connotation – is supported by experience and thus grows with age.

    In free definitions of both countries, however, such an increase with age can be observed only from grades 4/5 to 8/9. Thereafter, from 8/9 to 11/12, we find a marked decrease again, obviously because the older students are better in precise and hence shorter definitions (one exception again in Germany for „nutritiong where the increase of m/n continues).

    After looking at the total amount of associations and definition elements we are analyzing now some qualitative characteristics of the data, first focussing on the overall frequency of words and word groups in both tests (the so-called „top associationsg and „top definition partsg), second on their distribution in different qualitative categories.

 

3.     Frequency of words and word groups

Tables 2 and 3 illustrate sections of the total frequency lists of associations and definition elements in both countries around „nutritiong. They show in absolute numbers the 25 most frequent associations and 20 most frequent definition elements. (The absolute numbers have the privilege to indicate how often in this population such a word was actually repeated. As table 1 shows, the sample sizes are in the same magnitude; so the absolute numbers are in fact comparable).

Table 2 shows the following interesting results:

1.     Also the 25 „top associationsg are more frequent in Germany than in Japan, corrsponding to the totals shown in table 1.

2.     The number of associations with a scientific connotation (underlined in table) apparently grows with age: In Germany from 1 through 8 to 11, in Japan from 12 through 13 to 15.

Whether this is an effect of school teaching or of other factors outside school, cannot be decided here. This question will be examined later in the reports on „knowledge & source testsg KS (see articles of Yoshioka, Kaiser, Fujita).

3.     According to point 2, the general quantitative level of scientifically connotated free associations is much higher, and the increase through the ages much smaller, in Japan than in Germany. The Japanese population seems to have received a much more systematic nutrition education than the German, and the whole sample is surprisingly homogeneous (see, for instance, the high concordance of top associations such as „vitaminsg, „calciumg, „proteing, „caroting, etc.).

 

Table 2: Up to 25 most frequent free associations around „nutritiong (sample sizes see table 1)

Germany

Japan

Grades 4 / 5

Grades 8 / 9

Grades 11/12

Grades 4 / 5

Grades 8 / 9

Grades 11/12

1  eating         77

2  fruit            52

3  drinking      47

4  vegetables  44

5  meat           25

6  vitamins     21

7  health(y)    20

8  sausage      19

9  bread          16

10 apple         15

11 BSE          14

12 fat(s)         13

13 cheese       12

     water          ²

15 juice          11

     feeding/      

     nutrition     ²

     animals      ²

18 milk          10

     banana       ²

20 sweets       9

     breakfast   ²

22 soup          8

     lunch         ²

     noodles     ²

25 chocolate  ²

 

1  health(y)    60

2  eating         53

3  vegetables  38

4  fruit            36

5  vitamins     31

6  drinking     29

7  digest(ion)  28

8  fat(s)          24

9  stomach     23

    protein(s)    ²

11carbohydrates

                       20

12 meat          19

13 hunger       14

     mouth         ²

15 nutrients    13

16 gullet         12

     diet              ²

     sweets         ²

     lunch           ²

     gut               ²       

21 feeding/      

         nutrition  9     

     stout            ²

     important    ²

24 BSE            8

25 energy         ²

1  eating         40

    health(y)      ²

3  fat(s)          35

  carbohydrates ²

     vegetables   ²

6  vitamins     34

7  fruit            33

8  protein(s)    28

9  drinking      27

10 digest(ion) 25

11 important/

      necessary  19

     diet              ²

13 bread          18

     hunger         ²

15 meat           17

16 BSE           15

17 nutrient(s)  14

18 Fast Food   13

     roughage     ²

20 water          12

     food             ²            22 balanced    11

     feeding/

      nutrition     ²

24 energy         10

25 vegetarian   9

1  vitamin        41

2  vegetable    24

3  food            21

4  protein        19

5  calcium       16

    carotin          ²

7  fat                13

8  nutriment    10

9  health           8

   vitamin B      ²

   vitamin C      ²

   starch            ²

   good for the

          health     ² 14 carbohydrate7

    mineral

    (loan word)   ²

  milk                ²

  nourishment   ²

18mineral(Jap.)6

   meal              ²

   manure          ²

   fruit               ²

22 energy        5

23 vitamin A   4

     meat            ²

25 water           ²

1  vitamin       33

2  calcium       30

3  protein        24

4  food            23

5  fat                20

   carbohydrate ²

   mineral (Jap.) ²

8  vegetable    19

9  health          17

10 carotin        15

11 vitamin C   14

12 vitamin B   13

     balance        ²

14 vitamin A   11

15 energy         9

     homemaking

         (subject)  ²

17 ferrate          8

18 foodstuffs    7

     body            ²

20 nutriment     6

21 starch           5

     growth         ²

23 meal             4

     school lunch ²

25 amount of

nutrition needed²         

1  vitamin       49

2  health          31

3  calcium       27

4  protein        26

5  vegetable    21

6  balance       16

7  food            12

   carbohydrate ²

9  foodstuffs   11

10 carotin       10

     vitamin B    ²

12 vitamin C    9

     meal            ²

14 dietician      8

     drink           ²

16 fat                7

    homemaking ²

    mineral

      (loan word) ²

    school lunch ² 20mineral(Jap.)6

     ferrate          ²

     calorie         ²

     colored

         vegetable ²

24 vitamin A    5

     energy         ²

 

In table 3 on defintions we observe similar results as in table 2 on associations, however with the striking difference that in Japan the general quantitative level of scientifically connotated words is lower here (4/3/5 as compared with 0/7/7 in Germany). This cannot simply be explained with the smaller size of the list (20 most frequent elements here instead of 25 in table 2).It rather seems to indicate that the effect of nutrition education in Japan mainly occurs on the associative level of memory and not on the level of logical structuring.

It is interesting to see that in Japan in all three age groups some permeating elements of nutrition education can be found, like „energyg, „balanceg, „vitaminsg, whereas in Germany obvious effects of such education (which is incorporated here in human biology) can be observed only in grades 8/9 where it is, or just was, a topic of teaching. However, we find then in Germany a broader spectrum of sophisticated definition elements on a complex level of biological understanding than in Japan such as „body-owng, „body-alieng, „excretiong, „nutrientg, „convert (conversion)g, „digestiong, „energyg.

    For space reasons we cannot present here the same lists on „air pressureg and „metalg. Some observations are similar, e.g. regarding the higher total amounts of top associations and definition elements in Germany, and the general increase of science-oriented terms through the ages. This increase, in fact, is quite spectacular in Germany in the FA results of „air pressureg and „metalg and much greater here than of „nutritiong. Part of the effect can clearly be attributed to the influence of school  because specific formulas from physics teaching appear in FA results of „air pressureg, and specific chemical and physical terms of „metalg.

Table 3: Up to 20 most frequent definition elements on „nutritiong (sample sizes see table 1)

Germany

Japan

Grade 4 - 5

Grade 8 – 9

Grade 11-12

Grade 4 - 5

Grade 8 - 9

Grade 11-12

1  eating         48

2  drinking     21

3  to feed        17

4  life, to live 15

5  health(y)    13

    something   ²

    important    ²

8  starving      11      9  vegetables  10

10 fruit            6

     to need       ²

     uptake        ²

13 human being

                       4

1  uptake        27

2  important   26

3  eating         22

4  food           15

5  health(y)    14

   human being  ²

7  energy        13

8  digest(ion)  12

9  to take in    11

10 convert(sion)

                       10

11 nutrient(s)   8

     feeding/

        nutrition   ²

13 to excrete    7

     body            ²

15 body-alien  6    

     something   ²

17 body-own   5

     to need        ²

     drinking      ²

20 life, to live  ²

1  uptake         59

2  important/

     necessary   46

3  body           36

4  energy          27

5  nutrient(s)   20

    food              ²

7  life, to live  19

8  human being

                       18

9  substances  16

10 foodstuff   13

11 sustain       11

12 procedure  10

13 carbohydrates

                         9

14 to need         8

15 function       7

     vitamins       ²

     (biological)

           process  ²

     health(y)      ²

     eating           ²

20 way how to  6

1  necessity     41

2  body            40

3  take             21

4  human being

                        19

5  important    18

6  food            12

7  to live          11

   living thing    ²

9  to eat           10 10 to live          9

11 energy         8

     vitamin        ²

13 good             7

14 animal          6

     plant             ²

16 vegetable     5

17 man             4

     growth         ²

     balance        ²

20 spirits          ²

 

 

1  body            48

2  human being

                        46 3  take             33

4  balance        32

5  to live          24

6  necessary

             thing  21

7  man             20

    growth          ²

9  necessity     18

    health           ²

11 food           16

     disease        ²

13 energy        15

14 important   12

     foodstuffs   ²

16 meal           11

17 can't miss   10

     don't take     ²

19 vitamin        9

20 to eat            8

 

1  necessity     55

2  body            45

3  human being

                       33

4  health          29 5  to live          25

6  balance        24

7  take             23

8  energy         22

9  food            13

10 man            11

     living thing  ²

     animal          ²

13 disease       10

     foodstuffs    ²

     component   ²

      take

       (academic) ²

17 growth        9

     meal            ²

     protein        ²

20 vitamin       7

 

 

 

    In Japan, however, the population again seems much more homogeneous and age-independent with respect to the two concepts although there certainly is no specific „air pressure educationg or „metal educationg in school comparable to the existing nutrition education. School teaching in general seems to have a strongly homogenizing effect in Japan by strict guidelines for the treatment of subject-matter.

 

4.  Categorization of Associations and Definition elements 

Top associations and definition elements are first qualitative indicators of kind and depth of concept understanding. A second – and more specific – indicator is a classification of these „particles of knowledgeg in categories which should, on one side, characterize the scientific nature of the concept under study, on the other side also its human context in terms of applicability to everyday life, psychological and social values and possibly other aspects dependent on the concept and the test-population.

In table 4 the categories used in this study are listed up. They all start with a „formal categoryg (all, never, so far, relation, framework, sometimes, etc.) and end up with two emotional categories „+g and „-g in which affective statements of the students are collected. These , and also some other, statements may overlap with other categories so that frequently statements have to be attributed to two or more categories at the same time. This results in a sum of absolute figures higher than „mg, or a relative sum higher than 100%, respectively.

 

Table 4: Categories used for classification of associations and definition elements

Cate.

Nutrition

Air pressure

Metal

1

General remarks, formal words, not content-bound

2

Meals, foodstuff

Special physical category: Static pressure; weight, force,area, quo- tient, etc. (not mass, density!)

Special examples of metal:

Heavy metals

(gold, silver, iron, copper, etc.)

3

Natural „macro-nutrientsg

(needed in greater quantities), also their chemical symbols

Special physical category: Dynamic pressure; speed, wind, air resistance, etc.

Special examples of metal:

Light metals

(aluminum, magnesium, etc.)

4

Natural „micro-nutrientsg

(needed in small quantities), like vitamins,  minerals,

 trace elements

Special physical category: Sound and its radiation (also music, bang, explosion, etc.)

Special examples of metal:

Alkali-metals

(sodium, potassium, calcium, etc.)

5

Artificial additives to nutrition like spices, medicaments,

pesticides, growth hormones, drugs, preserving substances

General physical aspects other than the above;here, for instance, mass, density; also units of pressure (bar, hectopascal, etc.)

Chemical properties (metallic bonding, compounds of metals, rusting, corrosion, etc.)

 

6

Digestion and physiology of metabolism

Metrological and geographical aspects like weather, height of mountains, barometer, etc.

Physical properties (electrical conductivity, heat-conductivity, glossiness, weight, „coldg, etc.)

7

Food production: agriculture, fishery; also countries of food origin

Physiological, medical and psychological aspects (health, well-being, ear-cracking, etc.)

Metal and life: biological, psychological and social/political aspects (here also metal trade unions, strike, gold price, etc.)

8

Social, economical and political aspects: family, society, restaurants, poor/rich countries,

world hunger problem, etc.

Technical applications of air

pressure; also social, political aspects (hydraulic machines, airplanes, tyres, balloons, etc.)

Technical application of metals:

tools, vehicles, machines, metal industry and manufacture, also exploitation of ore resources

+

Clearly positive emotions

(normally overlapping with other categories)

-

Clearly negative emotions

(normally overlapping with other categories)

 

    Tables 5 and 6 show the relative frequence of statements (words or word groups) in each category as related to the number n of persons (see table 1) and thus give a clear impression of the associative framework on one side (table 5), and a fairly good picture of the logic core on the other (table 6) existing in the two populations on nutrition, air pressure and metal.

    The complete results incuded in the tables cannot be discussed here, but the most striking observations are summarized in a few points.

Due to relating the absolute numbers of statements to the number of persons (n), the German mean values are generally higher than the Japanese (cf. table 1). Independent of this general difference in associative creativity there are marked qualitative differences in the association and definition profiles of German and Japanese students as listed up in the following:

 

Table 5: Categorization of Free Associations (figures are mean values of absolute data)

Con-

cept

Nutrition

Air pressure

Metal

Na-

tion

Germany

Japan

Germany

Japan

Germany

Japan

Gra-

de

4 - 5

8 - 9

11 –

   12

4 - 5

8 - 9

11 –

   12

4 - 5

8 - 9

11 –

   12

4 - 5

8 - 9

11 –

   12

4 - 5

8 - 9

11 –

   12

4 - 5

8 - 9

11 –

   12

1

0.3

0.1

0.4

0.8

1.1

1.4

0.3

0.3

0.7

0.2

0.5

0.6

0.2

0.2

0.7

1.2

1.2

2.0

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

3.7

0.3

0.4

0.1

1.7

0.2

1.6

2.6

0.8

0.5

0.1

3.2

0.1

1.7

3.0

1.1

0.3

0.0

2.4

0.01.1

1.0

0.6

1.2

0.0

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.9

0.9

1.6

0.2

0.1

0.0

0.4

1.0

0.6

1.5

0.2

0.1

0.0

0.5

0.4

0.5

0.0

0.6

1.9

0.9

1.3

0.5

0.1

0.0

2.1

1.7

0.8

1.5

0.3

0.1

0.0

1.6

2.4

0.6

1.3

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.2

2.2

0.1

0.1

0.5

0.1

0.0

0.5

3.0

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.3

3.3

0.1

0.2

0.7

0.0

0.0

0.3

1.3

0.6

3.2

1.6

0.3

0.0

1.3

1.8

0.7

2.5

1.9

0.3

0.1

2.4

2.2

0.6

2.2

1.2

0.1

0.0

0.1

0.8

0.3

1.3

1.2

0.2

0.0

0.1

1.0

0.5

1.7

1.6

0.2

0.0

0.2

1.5

0.5

0.9

+

-

0.2

0.0

0.3

0.2

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.0

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.0

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.00.2

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.0

0.1

0.0

0.1

0.1

 

Table 6:  Categorization of Definition Elements (figures as in table 5)

Con-

cept

Nutrition

Air pressure

Metal

Na-

tion

Germany

Japan

Germany

Japan

Germany

Japan

Gra-

de

4 - 5

8 - 9

11 –

   12

4 - 5

8 - 9

11 –

   12

4 - 5

8 - 9

11 –

   12

4 - 5

8 - 9

11 –

   12

4 - 5

8 - 9

11 –

   12

4 - 5

8 - 9

11 –

   12

1

0.5

0.5

2.4

3.2

8.2

8.5

0.2

0.8

0.9

1.5

3.2

2.8

0.3

0.6

1.9

2.4

5.9

5.1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.9

0.0

0.5

0.6

0.0

0.0

0.0

2.0

0.0

0.3

0.7

0.3

0.1

0.0

1.6

0.0

0.1

0.5

0.2

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.3

0.9

0.6

0.4

0.1

0.1

0.0

1.2

1.1

0.6

0.3

0.0

0.2

0.0

0.9

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.4

0.1

0.0

0.7

0.0

0.0

0.5

0.7

0.1

0.2

0.5

0.1

0.0

0.8

0.6

0.1

0.0

0.3

0.0

0.0

0.1

1.3

0.2

0.1

0.5

0.0

0.0

1.0

3.6

0.0

0.1

0.5

0.0

0.0

0.3

3.6

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.7

0.1

0.4

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.8

0.9

0.3

0.7

0.1

0.0

0.0

1.1

1.2

0.3

0.8

0.3

0.0

0.0

0.3

1.8

0.2

0.7

0.6

0.1

0.0

1.0

3.6

0.7

1.9

0.4

0.1

0.0

1.0

3.4

0.8

1.3

+

-

0.1

0.0

0.2

0.0

0.3

0.0

0.9

0.2

1.8

1.1

1.8

1.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.0

0.2

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.0

0.20.1

0.6

0.1

0.4

0.2

 

Nutrition

·        Generally higher figures in Japan in the formal category (1), the difference to Germany being extreme in the definition profile (table 6).

·        High figures in the micro-nutrient category (4) in Japan. This corresponds to the high

      frequency of „calciumg, „vitaminsg etc. in table 2.

·        On the other hand, the digestion category (6) is by far dominating in Germany over Japan. It is striking to see that in Japanese reactions (both in associations and definitions) this category is so poorly represented although it is so closely related to nutrition.

·        Whereas in the social category (8) in Germany there is an increase of associations with age and a striking domination over Japan (table 5), the effect is reverse in the definitions (table 6): Here the figures decrease with age in Germany, and the figures in Japan rise above those of Germany.

·        Although definitions usually are poor in emotional components, due to logical reasoning, the Japanese students reveal considerable (mainly positive) emotional reactions to „nutritiong in their definitions (categories „+g and „-g in table 6).

Air pressure

·        In contrast to nutrition, associations in the formal category (1) are here less represented in Japan than in Germany (table 5). However, in the definition profile (table 6) this category is still dominating over Germany.

·        Whereas the „properg category 2 (air pressure as the quotient „weight by areag) is almost equally (although poorly!) represented in both countries in either profile, the physical (5), physiological (7) and technical (8) categories are clearly dominating in the associations of Germany (table 5). The difference in definitions is less clear (table 6).

·        In the metrological category (6) there is a clear dominance of Japanese responses over German ones in both profiles (stronger, however, in the definition profile) although also in Germany we find a relative maximum of responses in this category.

·        Emotional reactions to „air pressureg (categories „+g and „-g) are extremely few in both populations and both profiles.

Metal

·        The previously stated predominance of formal responses (1) in Japan over Germany is maintained in both profiles. Most drastic, however, is this effect again in the definition profile (table 6).

·        A relative maximum of associative responses exists in the heavy metal category (2) in both countries, but not so in the definitions. On the other hand, the light metal (3) and alkali-metal (4) categories are almost blank in either population.

·        Considerable maxima in both profiles can be observed in the physical (6) and technical (8) categories in Germany as well as Japan.

·        In Japan, however, the chemical category (5) is rather poorly represented in the association profile (table 5), whereas in Germany we find here in the higher grades (after chemistry teaching started in grade 8) a relative maximum in both profiles.

·        Emotional responses to „metalg are rare in both populations and profiles. There is a slight predominance of positive over negative responses, strongest in Japan.

 

4.     Final Conclusion

Summing up the association and definition results reported here, we can finally give the following tentative answer to the heuristic question of the beginning (chapter 1):

There is in fact empirical evidence that the effect school has on the development of science-oriented concepts from everyday life is largely restricted to the „outer surfaceg of the concepts in both countries and thus remains sporadic, unsystematic, and somehow chaotic.

School teaching up to now, for the majority of students, apparently is not effective in developing a deeper understanding of subject-matter reaching the logic core of concepts. This hypothesis has to be thoroughly discussed and proved on the basis of results gained with a sophisticated „knowledge & sourceg test (KS) which will be reported in the following articles.

    Nevertheless the influence of the associative, sporadic part of memory on human decisions and actions is immense, as daily experience  tells us. Thus it is quite important in school teaching to spend more attention to this part of memory. This brings us back to implications R. Manitz-Schaefer outlined in her article on the role of the science teacher as an educator.

 

Literature:

Schaefer, G.: Concept Formation in Biology. The Concept „Growthg. EJSE 1 (1), 1979, 87-102

Schaefer, G./Yoshioka, R.: Balanced Thinking. Peter Lang Publ.: Frankfurt/M., Berlin, Bern etc. 2000

 

 

 

 ‡W.  Introduction to the KS Test and Report on Interviews with Adults

 

Bernd Oehmig

 

1.     The gKS testh

The total test battery contained -beside the association and definition test reported before by G. Schaefer- also a modified multiple-choice test called gKnowledge & Source testh (KS). The classical multiple-choice test is standardised, highly selective, allows quick evaluation, and therefore is very often used. However, as it was necessary to test students from 9 years up to 18 with the same test battery, and as we also wanted to investigate the sources of knowledge, we modified the test as explained below. We used a test design considering both everyday concepts from colloquial language and scientific concepts of a high demand in order to find out the possible influence of school teaching on concept development in everyday life (the purpose of this project).

The KS test starts with a short story appealing the mentality of students of all ages (motivation part of the test). For example, in the KS test on gmetalh we use the idea of two young boys strolling about on a waste disposal-site to find objects made of metal. They discuss the characteristics of metal. The test person is being involved in their discussion by statements on metal, which he/she believes to be right or wrong. Also a response gdonft knowh is possible. In addition, the person should indicate whether or not this topic has already been treated in school.

 

Example:

Bernd and Marc are fond of adventures. They read books on the gold rush in America. But America is far away and out of reach. Therefore they have the idea to look for gold on a waste disposal-site, which was outranged some years ago.

 

 

Section from short story

 

 

Is the statement right?

I had this topic in school already

 

yes

 

no

donft know

yes

no

Marc thinks gold is a precious metal and therefore is unlikely to be found on a waste disposal-site.

 

 

 

 

 

 

For the concept gnutritionh the story was about a young girl falling sick as a result of wrong nutrition. For gair-pressureh the test starts with a story on ear cracking in the mountains. When formulating the following statements we paid attention that the items (20 to 30 in number) should be coherent and, step-by-step, should grow in scientific demand.

 

Example:

 

 

Section from statements on metal

 

Is the statement right?

I had this topic in school already

 

yes

 

no

donft know

yes

no

The reason for the typical attributes of a metal is a special bonding of atoms.

 

 

 

 

 

 

At the end oft the KS test we ask again about possible sources of the studentfs knowledge and solicit very personal assessments about the significance of the concept in everyday-life, and on the way it was treated in school.

 

Example:

Section from personal statements

yes

no

uncer-tain

We spoke about metal in school already but it was boring.

 

 

 

 

The whole test needs about 45 minutes (one lesson), older students sometimes needing less.

 

2.     Interviews of adults

2.1 General remarks

In addition to testing students in school we also interviewed 22 adults with the same test battery. These had left school several years ago, and we wanted to find out something about the gfate of school knowledgeh. We also expected from these individualized in-depth interviews to get some qualitative data for the following phase of research.

The interviews centred on the following 6 points:

 

1.      What is the importance of this concept and the relevant science dealing with it?

2.      Is the knowledge about this concept part of general education (for everybody) or rather of a special training (for those who are interested)?

3.      What do the test persons remember from their time of school teaching in connection with this concept, and with the relevant science?

4.      Which are the real sources of the test personfs knowledge behind their own indications?

5.      How do the test persons explain and comment the gaps in their knowledge?

6.      What kind of role do the test persons attribute to school in general?

 

These points were concretised in 21 questions. In view of the goal of the project the interviews were not only conceived as knowledge tests but as a documentation of the effectivity of school in general.

 

2.2 Methodology

We selected the test persons from a circle of well-known adults, males and females, in order to receive frank statements and confidential results. Different professional groups were represented (charwoman, employee, dentist etc.). The oldest participant was 60 years old, the youngest 24, most participants in the age range between 30 and 40. University students were excluded because of a possible affinity to the subject in question.

A sample of 22 is not grepresentativeh in the statistical sense, but in this investigation we put the emphasis on qualitative results rather than quantitative.

After filling in the sheets of our test battery they were confronted with the 21 questions mentioned above. The responses of the test persons were carefully protocolled sometimes lead to subsequent discussions. The cross-reference of the 21 questions to the above stated 6 main points was handled in a flexible way. Thus there were test persons who first answered the content of the concept under study were quite unimportant, but later on expressed it were an indispensable part of general education. In spite of such contradictions, however, the sequence of questions generally yielded coherent statements of the test persons.

The interview started with the following open question: gWhat would you like to comment after filling in the test?h It was very interesting to see that this -for the interviewees- completely unexpected part revealed the whole spectrum of aspects around teaching and learning.

Applying test battery and interview together at the same persons allows mutual control and assessment of the two methods and thus the interpretation of their results.

 

2.3 Results of Interview

The following report shows the main results in a condensed form:

 

1.      All persons regret spontaneously that they have no knowledge at all about one of the three concepts. They admit to have a rough memory but all details were forgotten.

2.      The adults characterized the concepts to be gunimportanth, guselessh and guninterestingh (less in nutrition). The assessment of importance of air-pressure and metal tends towards zero.

3.      Nevertheless nearly all test persons express the opinion some knowledge about the concepts would be an essential part of general education.

4.      The reasons for forgetting the details are specified: too much theory in school, too little practice-oriented teaching, and no possibility of practical application in everyday life.

5.      Further reasons are stated: inappropriate teaching arrangement, deficient planning of lessons, few experiments, too little project teaching, poor preparation of lessons.

6.      There are two kinds of groups:  one expresses a general disinterest in natural science, and the other thinks positively on it. Both, however, complain about the imperfections of school listed up in 4 and 5.

7.      There are some hints from test persons that in those cases where schools actual working with experiments the situation is not improving. The same persons who very well remember quite peripheral and sometimes amusing events around the experiments do not remember the scientific details, which were intended. One quotation: "I remember very well experiments on conductivity and acids and colourful test-tubes containing the whole burnt shit."

8.      An important reason of effectivity of school is seen in the personal contact between students and teacher and in an agreeable learning atmosphere. This corresponds to the answers given to questions about interest: with the answers for questions about interests. The test persons state two reasons for interest/disinterest: a. personal ability (talents); b. the way of instruction.

9.      All in the entire concept nutrition seems the most meaningful concept (see also FA and FD results). Metal and air-pressure are regarded as  gunimportanth and gboringh concepts.

 

Summarizing the above statements the test persons think they did not learn anything substantial in school, yet school would be gimportant for lifeh.

 

2.4 Results of KS test

If we regard the wrong, the missing and the indifferent answers together as gwrongh, there was no significant difference between the three concepts  (air-pressure had the highest rate of gwrongh answers: 58.0%, followed by metal: 41.7%, and nutrition 37.5%).

Using a statistical correction factor on the basis of the assumption that some items may just be guessed, the results become much worse.

With regard to the question about the source of knowledge, nutrition shows a special position again: This concept is much more present in the heads of the test persons than air-pressure and metal, and memory apparently contains and stores more easily facts about nutrition than about the others.

 

2.5 Further results

The daily impact of the three concepts was assessed by the test persons in the following way: 

 

1.      All adults confessed they heard something about metal in school, but half of them were not sure about nutrition and air-pressure. This is curious if compared with the test results.

2.      They confirmed the concepts were not interesting and that it would not be necessary to find out further details about them. They expressed this opinion in contrast to their previous statement they were  guseful in every-day-lifeh.

3.      If asked whether knowledge about the concepts would be useless they refused this for the concept nutrition.

 

Finally, we look at some selected results of the FA and FD test. Adults, in the given maximal frame of 9 associations, wrote down in the average 5.8 words per person for nutrition, 5.0 for metal, and 4.3 for air-pressure. This again demonstrates the exceptional role of nutrition mentioned above. The higher positions of the ranking list look as follows:

 

Rank               Air-pressure  Metal              Nutrition

1                           tyre                                      hard                      diet

                                                                          rust

 

2                           high-pressure      iron                       health

                              weather                jewelry

 

3                           low-pressure                      aluminium            bread

                                                                          mining                  BSE

                                                                          tank, etc.              protein, etc.

                                                                                                                     

If we compare the association of adults with those of students (see preceding article of G. Schaefer), we observe a striking similarity in the top associations. This corresponds to previous experience of concept research showing that the associative framework in a population is surprisingly constant and homogeneous in space and time.

The FD test in the interview was grouped into 4 categories: full (correct and comprehensive) definition, wrong definition (with errors or contradictions), insufficient definition (including tautological ones), and missing definition. Nearly all of them tried a definition, but the result in fact was disappointing because most of them gave very poor answers. Examples: gNutrition is important for life.h gMetal is difficult to handle and is hard to form.h gAir-pressure is to pump something; it becomes tight.h

 

2.6 Sources of knowledge

Evaluation of the last item of the KS test shows that magazines and television, beside parents, are essential sources for all three concepts. Books, however, are the main sources for metal and air-pressure. Internet, CD-Rom and newspapers almost play no part.

Another result of the KS test lets assume that school had informed about nutrition and metal very well in contrast to air-pressure. In case of air-pressure adults were not sure or answered negatively. This shows the mean relative importance of this concept - it does not stick in their minds.

 

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‚PD–Ú“I

Žq‚Ç‚à’B‚́AŠwZ‚ʼnȊw‚ª‹³‚¦‚ç‚ê‚é‘O‚ɁA—lX‚ÈŽ©‘RŒ»Û‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚éŠT”O‚ɂ‚¢‚āAŽq‚Ç‚à’B‚È‚è‚Ì’mŽ¯‚ðŠl“¾‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚éB‚±‚̂悤‚È’mŽ¯‚́C“úí“I‚ÈŒoŒ±‚ɐ[‚­‹­ŒÅ‚ɍª‚´‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚é‚̂ŁC“`““I‚ÈŽö‹Æ‚ł́A—eˆÕ‚É•Ï—e‚µ‚È‚¢B‚µ‚©‚µCŒoŒ±‚ÉŠî‚­Žq‚Ç‚à’B‚Ì‘f–p‚È’mŽ¯‚́CŠwZ‚Å‚ÌŽö‹Æ‚ð’Ê‚µ‚āC‚æ‚è’ŠÛ“IE˜_—“I‚ÈŠT”O‚ɐ¸ãk‰»‚³‚ê‚邱‚Æ‚ªŠú‘Ò‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚éB

–{Œ¤‹†‚ł́C‰ÈŠw‚ÌŽö‹Æ‚É‚æ‚Á‚Ä“úíŠT”O‚ª¸ãk‰»‚³‚ê‚é‚Ì‚©C¸ãk‰»‚³‚ê‚é‚Æ‚·‚ê‚΁C‚»‚ê‚Í•¶‰»‚ɉe‹¿‚³‚ê‚é‚Ì‚©C«·‚ɉe‹¿‚³‚ê‚é‚Ì‚©C‚ ‚é‚¢‚ÍŠl“¾‚³‚ê‚éŠT”O‚É‚æ‚Á‚ĈقȂé‚Ì‚©‚𖾂炩‚É‚·‚邱‚Æ‚ð–Ú“I‚Æ‚·‚éB

 

‚QD•û–@

2.1 ’²¸‘ΏÛ

•\‚P@’²¸‘ΏێҐ”

 

 

Šw”N

‡Œv

 

 

4-5

8-9

11-12

‰h—{

ƒhƒCƒc

118

95

107

320

 

“ú–{

112

90

92

294

‹Cˆ³

ƒhƒCƒc

106

97

72

275

 

“ú–{

111

87

90

288

‹à‘®

ƒhƒCƒc

126

97

93

316

 

“ú–{

111

88

100

299

Žö‹Æ‚É‚æ‚éŠT”O‚̐¸ãk‰»‚ðŒŸ“¢‚·‚邽‚߂ɁC¬E’†E‚“™ŠwZ‚ÌŠe’iŠK‚ÌŽ™“¶E¶“k‚𒲍¸‘ΏۂƂµ‚½B‚Ü‚½C•¶‰»‚É‚æ‚é‰e‹¿‚𒲂ׂ邽‚߂ɁCƒhƒCƒc‚Æ“ú–{‚ŃTƒ“ƒvƒŠƒ“ƒO‚ðs‚Á‚½BƒTƒ“ƒvƒŠƒ“ƒO”‚́Cˆê‚‚̊T”O‚ɑ΂µ‚āCŠeŠw”N’iŠK‚ÌŽq‚Ç‚à’B‚ð‚¨‚æ‚»100l‚Æ‚µ‚½BÅI“I‚ɂ́C•\‚P‚ÉŽ¦‚·‚悤‚ÈŽ™“¶E¶“k‚𒲍¸‘ΏۂƂµ‚½B

 

2.2 ‚j‚rƒeƒXƒg

’²¸‘ΏۂƂµ‚½“úíŠT”O‚́C‰h—{C‹Cˆ³C‹à‘®‚Ì‚R‚‚ł ‚éB‚±‚ê‚ç‚ÌŠT”O‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚é’mŽ¯‚Æ‚»‚̏î•ñŒ¹‚ð‚j‚rƒeƒXƒg(Knowledge and Sources Test)‚ð—p‚¢‚Ä’²¸‚µ‚½BŠeŠT”O‚Ì‚j‚rƒeƒXƒg‚́C•¶––‚Ì•˜^‚P`‚S‚ÉŽ¦‚µ‚½B

KSƒeƒXƒg‚́C‚Q‚‚̖â‘èŒQ‚©‚ç\¬‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚éBˆê‚‚́CŠT”O‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚é’mŽ¯‚̐^‹U‚Æ‚»‚Ì’mŽ¯‚ðŽö‹Æ‚ÅŠw‚ñ‚Å‚¢‚é‚©‚ð–₤–â‘è‚Å‚ ‚éi•˜^‚P`‚RjB‚±‚Ì–â‘è‚ł́C“úíŠT”O‚ð‘ΏۂƂµ‚Ä‚¢‚邱‚Æ‚ðŽq‚Ç‚à’B‚Ɉӎ¯‚³‚¹‚邽‚߂ɁCg‹ß‚È’Z‚¢•¨Œê‚ªÅ‰‚É’ñŽ¦‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚éB‚½‚Æ‚¦‚΁C‰h—{‚ÌKSƒeƒXƒg‚ł́Cƒ~ƒhƒŠ‚³‚ñ‚ª‹C‚ðŽ¸‚Á‚Ä“|‚ꂽ‚Æ‚¢‚¤ó‹µ‚Å‚Ì“¯‹‰¶‚̉ï˜b‚©‚çu‰h—{v‚ªŽæ‚èã‚°‚ç‚ꂽB‚±‚Ì’Z‚¢•¨Œê‚ÌŒã‚ɁC‰h—{‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚éŠî–{“I’mŽ¯‚Æ‚æ‚荂“x‚È’mŽ¯‚̐^‹U‚ª–â‚í‚ê‚éB‚Æ“¯Žž‚ɁC‚»‚ê‚ç‚Ì’mŽ¯‚ðŽö‹Æ‚ÅŠw‚ñ‚Å‚¢‚é‚©‚Ç‚¤‚©‚àq‚Ë‚ç‚ê‚éB

‚à‚¤ˆê‚‚̖â‘èŒQ‚́CŠeŠT”O‚ðŠw‚Ô‚±‚Æ‚É‹»–¡‚âŠÖS‚ª‚ ‚é‚©‚Ç‚¤‚©‚ð–₤¬–â‚ÆŠT”O‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚é’mŽ¯‚ð‚ǂ̂悤‚ȏî•ñŒ¹‚©‚瓾‚Ä‚¢‚é‚©‚ð–₤–â‘è‚©‚ç\¬‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚éi•˜^‚SjB

 

2.3  ƒf[ƒ^‚Ì•ÏŠ·

@‚±‚±‚ł́CKSƒeƒXƒg‚̉ž“š‚ð‚Q’lƒf[ƒ^‚É•ÏŠ·‚µC•ªÍ‚µ‚½B‚·‚È‚í‚¿C’mŽ¯‚̐^‹U‚ɂ‚¢‚ẮC³“š‚Æ‚»‚êˆÈŠOCŽö‹Æ‚ÅŠw‚ñ‚¾‚©‚Ç‚¤‚©‚ɂ‚¢‚ẮC‚Í‚¢E‚¢‚¢‚¦‚Æ‚µ‚½Bu‚í‚©‚ç‚È‚¢v‚â–³‰ñ“š‚ɂ‚¢‚ẮCŒ‡‘¹’l‚Æ‚µ‚Ĉµ‚Á‚½B

 

‚RDŒ‹‰Ê

3.1 ŠT”O‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚é’mŽ¯‚̐³“š—¦

•\‚Q`‚S‚́CŠeŠT”O‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚éƒhƒCƒc‚Æ“ú–{‚̐³“š—¦‚ðŠw”N•Ê‹y‚ѐ«•Ê‚ÉŽ¦‚µ‚½‚à‚Ì‚Å‚ ‚éB‚Ü‚¸CŠw”N•Ê‚ÉŒ©‚½³“š—¦‚ðŒŸ“¢‚µ‚悤B

ƒsƒAƒ\ƒ“‚̃Ô2ŒŸ’è‚ðs‚Á‚½‚Æ‚±‚ëC‰h—{‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚é’mŽ¯‚̐³“š—¦‚É—LˆÓ·‚ªŒ©‚ç‚ꂽŽ¿–⍀–ڂ́CƒhƒCƒc‚Å‚Í13€–ځC“ú–{‚Å‚Í‚X€–Ú‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B—¼‘‚Æ‚àCŠw”N‚ªã‚ª‚é‚É”º‚¢C³“š—¦‚͏㏸‚·‚éŒXŒü‚ª‚ ‚Á‚½B‚Æ‚±‚낪C‹Cˆ³‚Æ‹à‘®‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚é’mŽ¯‚ɂ‚¢‚ẮC“ú–{‚ƃhƒCƒc‚̐³“š—¦‚Ì—LˆÓ·‚ɈႢ‚ªŒ©‚ç‚ꂽB‹Cˆ³‚̐³“š—¦‚É—LˆÓ·‚ªŒ©‚ç‚ꂽ‚̂́CƒhƒCƒc‚Å13€–Ú‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B‚»‚Ì‚¤‚¿‚Ì‚Q€–ڂ́C8-9Šw”N‚̐³“š—¦‚ªˆê”ԍ‚‚©‚Á‚½Bˆê•ûC“ú–{‚ł́C14€–Ú‚É—LˆÓ·‚ªŒ©‚ç‚êC‚»‚Ì‚¤‚¿‚Ì‚X€–Ú‚Å8-9Šw”N‚̐³“š—¦‚ªˆê”ԍ‚‚©‚Á‚½B“¯—l‚ɁC‹à‘®‚ɂ‚¢‚Ä‚àCƒhƒCƒc‚Å‚Í19€–ڂ̐³“š—¦‚É—LˆÓ·‚ªŒ©‚ç‚ꂽ‚ªC8-9Šw”N‚̐³“š—¦‚ªˆê”ԍ‚‚©‚Á‚½‚̂͂킸‚©‚S€–Ú‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½B‚µ‚©‚µC“ú–{‚Å‚Í—LˆÓ·‚ªŒŸo‚³‚ꂽ19€–Ú‚Ì‚¤‚¿‚X€–Ú‚Å8-9Šw”N‚̐³“š—¦‚ªˆê”ԍ‚‚©‚Á‚½B

Šw”N•Ê‚̐³“š—¦‚É”ä‚ׁC«•Ê‚̐³“š—¦‚É—LˆÓ·‚ªŒ©‚¢‚¾‚³‚ꂽ€–ڂ͏­‚È‚©‚Á‚½B‚µ‚©‚µ‚È‚ª‚çC–Ê”’‚¢Œ‹‰Ê‚ªŒ©‚ç‚ꂽB‰h—{‚ɂ‚¢‚ẮCƒhƒCƒc‚Å‚R€–ځC“ú–{‚Å‚Q€–ڂɐ«·‚ªŒ©‚¢‚¾‚³‚ꂽBƒhƒCƒc‚ł́C‚R€–Ú‚·‚ׂĂɂ¨‚¢‚āC—Žq‚̐³“š—¦‚ª’jŽq‚æ‚è‚à‚‚©‚Á‚½Bˆê•ûC“ú–{‚ł́C‚Q€–Ú‚Æ‚à’jŽq‚̐³“š—¦‚ª—Žq‚æ‚è‚à‚‚©‚Á‚½B‹Cˆ³‚ɂ‚¢‚ẮCƒhƒCƒc‚Å‚V€–ڂɐ«·‚ªŒ©‚ç‚ꂽB‚»‚Ì‚¤‚¿‚U€–ڂ́C’jŽq‚̐³“š—¦‚ª‚‚©‚Á‚½B“ú–{‚̐³“š—¦‚ɐ«·‚ªŒ©‚ç‚ꂽ‚Ì‚Í‚S€–Ú‚Å‚ ‚邪C‚·‚ׂĒjŽq‚̐³“š—¦‚ª‚‚©‚Á‚½B‹à‘®‚ɂ‚¢‚ẮCƒhƒCƒc‚Í“ú–{‚æ‚è‚à‘½‚­‚̍€–ڂŐ«·‚ªŒ©‚ç‚ꂽB“ú–{‚ł͂킸‚©‚R€–Ú‚¾‚¯‚Å‚ ‚Á‚½‚ªCƒhƒCƒc‚Å‚Í11€–ڂɐ«·‚ªŒ©‚ç‚ꂽB‹à‘®‚É‚¨‚¢‚Đ«·‚ªŒ©‚ç‚ꂽ€–ڂ̐³“š—¦‚́C—¼‘‚Æ‚àC’jŽq‚Ì•û‚ª—Žq‚æ‚è‚à‚‚©‚Á‚½B

 

•\‚Q@‰h—{‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚é’mŽ¯‚̐³“š—¦i“j

@

Šw”N

 

«

 

ƒhƒCƒc

 

“ú–{

 

ƒhƒCƒc

 

“ú–{

 

@

4-5

8-9

11-12

 

4-5

8-9

11-12

 

’j

—

 

’j

—

@

–â‚P

80.2

91.5

94.4

*

88.3

90.0

93.5

 

88.4

89.1

 

91.0

89.6

 

–â‚Q

90.5

95.7

97.1

 

91.1

95.6

90.2

 

95.6

93.4

 

91.7

92.8

 

–â‚R

76.7

87.4

92.4

*

63.4

60.0

75.0

 

81.2

88.5

 

71.4

59.2

*

–â‚S

21.2

44.4

68.6

 

19.6

30.7

41.8

 

47.0

43.6

 

32.7

26.8

 

–â‚T

19.0

39.1

55.8

*

9.8

20.2

54.3

*

35.3

38.7

 

28.0

25.8

 

–â‚U

80.2

94.7

96.3

*

88.4

92.0

93.5

 

91.3

89.7

 

89.8

92.7

 

–â‚V

91.1

97.7

98.0

*

92.8

98.9

97.8

 

95.5

95.4

 

95.8

96.8

 

–â‚W

60.9

87.1

86.8

*

69.6

84.3

79.3

*

74.6

80.1

 

78.0

76.6

 

–â‚X

87.0

66.7

50.5

*

57.8

33.7

34.8

*

73.0

63.4

 

46.7

38.7

 

–â10

43.1

38.3

39.3

 

14.3

33.7

52.2

*

42.8

37.5

 

31.5

33.1

 

–â11

80.2

81.9

82.1

 

53.6

86.4

88.0

*

81.9

79.8

 

71.3

79.0

 

–â12

41.5

50.0

53.8

 

42.9

42.7

56.5

 

50.0

47.0

 

52.4

40.3

*

–â13

74.6

87.2

73.3

*

77.7

86.5

83.7

 

75.4

79.9

 

83.3

81.5

 

–â14

20.5

13.7

29.9

*

17.3

12.4

20.7

 

25.7

17.9

 

17.4

16.3

 

–â15

6.8

5.3

12.4

 

18.2

13.5

8.7

 

7.2

8.7

 

16.8

9.8

 

–â16

80.7

59.8

65.3

*

27.5

32.6

13.0

*

62.6

72.5

*

22.2

27.9

 

–â17

64.6

96.8

94.3

*

38.5

64.0

77.2

*

79.6

88.5

*

55.1

63.9

 

–â18

39.7

76.8

88.7

*

88.2

94.4

95.7

 

64.5

70.7

@

89.8

95.9

 

–â19

54.3

80.9

84.9

*

40.0

69.7

77.2

*

65.4

78.4

*

62.9

58.5

 

–â20

15.4

13.2

25.5

@

36.4

55.1

70.7

*

20.4

17.5

@

55.1

50.4

@

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@*@p<.05

 

•\‚R@‹Cˆ³‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚é’mŽ¯‚̐³“š—¦i“j

@

Šw”N

 

«

 

ƒhƒCƒc

 

“ú–{

 

ƒhƒCƒc

 

“ú–{

 

@

4-5

8-9

11-12

 

4-5

8-9

11-12

 

’j

—

 

’j

—

@

–â‚P

51.4

52.6

47.9

 

39.6

57.5

49.4

*

52.9

48.9

 

51.5

43.6

 

–â‚Q

30.2

39.6

58.0

*

31.8

36.8

41.6

 

43.2

37.3

 

38.1

34.2

 

–â‚R

13.2

25.0

64.3

*

15.3

40.0

44.4

*

36.2

25.7

 

34.3

28.4

 

–â‚S

18.7

39.6

35.2

*

5.4

18.4

22.2

*

36.4

23.5

*

17.6

10.3

 

–â‚T

34.6

47.4

60.6

*

22.5

40.2

43.3

*

50.0

41.8

 

34.7

34.2

 

–â‚U

90.6

93.8

94.4

 

49.5

72.1

80.0

*

96.4

89.1

*

68.6

61.5

 

–â‚V

18.9

21.6

22.2

 

13.5

32.6

31.1

*

22.9

17.5

 

27.8

20.5

 

–â‚W

13.2

14.4

19.4

 

15.3

32.6

32.2

*

18.6

10.9

 

30.2

19.7

 

–â‚X

33.6

29.9

13.2

*

21.6

38.4

33.3

*

30.4

22.8

 

35.5

23.1

*

–â10

18.9

37.1

55.1

*

4.5

22.1

18.0

*

38.1

32.6

 

15.5

12.0

 

–â11

22.6

42.3

44.9

*

17.3

14.0

21.1

 

41.0

28.9

*

20.7

12.9

 

–â12

28.0

37.1

38.8

 

26.1

62.8

44.4

*

40.7

27.1

*

48.5

35.0

*

–â13

56.1

71.6

90.0

*

47.2

80.0

74.4

*

66.7

74.3

 

66.5

64.3

 

–â14

41.9

45.8

60.0

 

49.5

86.0

75.6

*

48.9

47.8

 

67.5

70.1

 

–â15

30.8

26.1

27.9

 

29.7

33.7

19.3

 

32.1

25.0

 

29.8

24.1

 

–â16

17.9

20.0

21.7

 

12.6

17.4

13.5

 

27.9

12.1

*

16.1

12.0

 

–â17

42.7

45.8

30.0

 

15.3

30.2

36.0

*

33.6

46.3

*

23.8

29.9

@

–â18

19.6

12.4

10.0

 

3.6

38.4

21.3

*

15.7

14.0

 

22.0

16.2

 

–â19

35.8

45.8

55.1

*

19.8

30.2

27.0

 

48.2

39.6

 

31.5

16.2

*

–â20

31.4

39.2

52.2

@

17.1

25.6

28.1

@

45.7

33.3

*

25.6

18.8

*

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@*@p<.05

 

•\‚S@‹à‘®‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚é’mŽ¯‚̐³“š—¦i“j

 

Šw”N

 

«

@

 

ƒhƒCƒc

 

“ú–{

 

ƒhƒCƒc

 

“ú–{

 

@

4-5

8-9

11-12

 

4-5

8-9

11-12

 

’j

—

 

’j

—

@

–â‚P

58.5

84.4

90.3

*

77.5

69.3

57.0

*

81.0

73.5

 

67.1

69.4

 

–â‚Q

42.7

75.0

87.0

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46.8

65.9

75.0

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67.7

67.8

 

67.1

56.5

 

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17.6

33.0

42.2

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10.8

31.8

43.0

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39.1

21.6

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27.6

27.9

 

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31.9

62.1

58.6

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26.1

52.3

61.0

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53.2

45.0

 

44.7

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44.1

50.0

60.7

 

22.5

22.7

42.0

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54.8

49.3

 

31.6

26.5

 

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46.4

44.3

40.0

 

68.2

87.5

74.0

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42.9

45.8

 

71.5

80.3

 

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65.5

67.7

87.1

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67.0

76.5

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71.6

 

66.2

62.9

 

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77.7

86.6

92.5

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83.0

88.0

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80.1

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77.6

79.6

 

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70.3

71.9

90.3

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51.4

62.5

67.3

 

81.0

74.3

 

60.7

59.2

 

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29.2

26.6

24.2

 

30.9

50.6

38.8

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30.8

23.2

 

40.9

37.7

 

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28.8

58.8

73.3

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16.4

22.7

36.1

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62.9

42.8

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26.0

23.4

 

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61.7

83.9

81.7

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33.3

56.8

52.0

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82.5

66.9

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46.0

46.9

 

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24.8

31.8

28.9

 

47.5

38.8

 

37.2

19.2

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47.3

65.6

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44.0

43.7

35.7

 

50.0

34.3

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42.6

39.7

 

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51.3

76.3

89.0

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52.7

82.8

80.2

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75.5

66.9

 

70.9

70.3

 

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63.3

72.9

81.3

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49.5

85.2

77.6

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80.7

64.1

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64.7

74.1

 

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66.0

81.3

93.1

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70.7

83.1

90.7

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83.1

76.6

 

79.3

83.9

 

–â18

17.5

26.0

26.7

 

28.8

46.6

28.9

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27.8

19.0

 

36.0

32.2

 

–â19

35.9

56.3

74.4

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9.0

30.7

41.2

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54.2

54.4

 

25.3

26.7

 

–â20

25.4

13.5

20.9

 

9.0

11.5

8.2

 

29.4

11.0

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13.4

5.5

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54.4

35.1

46.2

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35.1

73.9

79.4

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47.1

43.8

 

56.7

65.8

 

–â22

33.3

24.2

34.8

 

8.2

21.6

12.5

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36.9

24.7

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16.8

10.3

 

–â23

53.8

64.9

84.3

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35.1

50.0

52.6

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72.2

60.3

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52.7

37.7

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43.1

65.6

50.5

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44.1

52.3

44.8

 

59.0

46.9

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45.6

47.9

 

–â25

21.4

20.0

22.2

 

7.2

6.9

11.5

 

26.1

17.6

 

11.4

5.5

 

–â26

38.5

13.5

13.2

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15.3

9.1

9.4

 

31.6

15.5

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14.1

8.9

 

–â27

24.1

12.9

22.6

 

16.2

18.2

13.5

 

22.1

17.9

 

14.1

17.8

 

–â28

12.9

12.6

8.9

 

4.5

5.7

5.2

 

13.1

10.2

 

7.4

2.7

 

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16.1

12.6

23.5

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