TDTypes of Curriculum Organization

@The word curriculum includes in its scope all of the expriences pupils may have while under the direction or supervision of the school, or all of those for which the school is responsible. It includes extra-classroom activities, such as Play Days, excursions, club work, and so on, as well as classroom activities.

@There are many types of curriculum plans, among which the fo11owing will be discussed briefly here:

1. The subject matter curriculum

2. The correlated curriculum

3. The fusion curriculum

4. The core curriculum

5. The experience curriculum

@These will be summarized here, since curriculum organization is a topic of wide discussion, and any discussion of the secondary school curriculum as a whole necessarily involves the place of English language in the curriculum.

P. Subject Matter Curriculum

@Until recently the secondary schools of our country have used esentially the subject matter approach in curriculum organization. The secondary education course was divided in different compartments, called subject. The middle school boy, for instanceCmight be taking as many as twenty subject at one time. There was little if any planned relationship between the work in one subject and the others. Each subject was generally taught in an isolated way, and the mastery of subject matter in a certain narrow compartment was an aim in itself. The entire secondary education program was divided into specific separate curriculums, usually offered in different schools. The higher school preparatory curriculum was offered in the boys' middle school, the preparation-for-home-life curriculum in the girls' high school, and the separate agricultural, industrial and fishery curriculums in four different types of vocational schools.

Q. Correlated Curriculum

@The words correlation and interrelation mean practically the same thing. Correlation is the recognition and establishment of relationships among the various subject areas or fields. Sometimes the term correlation is used to indicate planning a proper sequence of experiences in one subject field; for instance, in planning relationships between 7th-grade National Language and 8th-grade National Language. A better term for that is articulation, and it is of course essential in every subject field under any type of curriculum organization, since pupil experiences must follow a psychologically determined sequence. Correlation refers to horizontal relationships\relationships on the same grade level between two subjects, or among all the subjects. One may correlate English with Music, Mathematics, History, and other subjects. Teachers of Japanese Language and English Language in the first year of the lower secondary school may attempt to correlate their work to some degree, as they teach Romaji by taking up certain fundamental questions of writing and punctuation. Another illustration may be found in the attempt to correlate the material and activities in logic and English in the upper secondary school classes. Correlation, in short, is our first logical step toward relating classroom activities and topics to real life. The big handicap in Japan to the development of this method has been the retention of too rigid subject matter division.

@The necessity for correlation is implied in the present arrangement of subjects. This arrangement, or any other arrangement, was brought about because of the necessity of organizing the curriculum, not because there is a natural or inevitable way to divide pupil experiences among subjects. Subject organization might be regarded as described below.

@The secondary schools have certain major aims. In order to achieve these aims pupils should be provided an opportunity to engage in certain planned experiences, designed specifically to achieve the aims. Let us assume that the three major aims of the secondary schools are:

Now suppose we broke each of these major aims down into several hundred smaller and more manageable aims. The next step would be to list all of the experiences that would help in the achievement of the aims. After listing the hundreds or thousands of experiences, and trying to classify them, we would find that some could be conveniently grouped together and called Mathematics. Others would be so closely related that we might group them together and call them Science. Others we could group loosely together and classify as National Language, still others as English Language. But we would find, in trying to assign experiences to one field or another, that there would be great overlappings. We would often be troubled about whether to assign one certain experience to Science or to Social Studies. If we were to go through this detailed experience, as many educators have, we should find that the divisions between subject areas are artificial, and that in many hundreds of instances there are no clear criteria as to which subject field a certain experience should be assigned to. We should find that the boundaries between subject fields are in fact very slight, and we should decide that in order to be sure that pupils had all of the experiences considered necessary, we should have to assign some types of experiences to several different subject areas. What this means, in effect, is that there can be no rigid inflexible boundaries between subjects. Education will be more realistic if, in each subject, the borderlines between it and other subject are considered very flexible, so that pupils' experiences in accordance with their needs can be planned without undue attention being paid to whether or not the territory of another field has been invaded. The implications of this philosophy for English language curriculum are that materials for English should be drawn from whatever fields that seem necessary. In other words, English language textbooks and other curriculum materials may draw upon stories, poems, essays, articles, and other types of presentations from History, Social Studies, Science, Art, Music, or any other field.

@Correlation implies, indeed makes it essential, that teachers must work closely together to plan pupil experiences designed to achieve the major aims of education. English language teachers cannot set themselves apart, as a distinct group, but must know what their pupils are doing in all of the other fields of study. In order to secure really effective correlation, it is necessary to provide a free period each day during which teachers may meet together to discuss the work their classes have done, to plan and prepare future project, and to plan correlation in every aspect of their teaching.

R. Fusion Curriculum

@Fusion implies disregard of subject matter lines. It involves the teaching of two or more subject areas together in one class without special regard for the old subject matter lines. The lower secondary school curriculum involves quite a lot of fusion, when compared with the old curriculum. All of the separate subject in the Social Studies field, with the exception of Japanese History, were fused together into General Social Studies for grades 7-10. All of the separate science subjects were fused into a course called General Science, grades 7-9. All of the former subjects in the field of National Language were fused together into a course colled National Language, grades 7-12. Separate subject in the field of Mathematics were fused together into General Mathematics, offered in grades 7-10. The former subjects titled History of the West and History of the Orient were fused together recently into World History. At the 12th-grade level a subject called Current Problems uses materials from the separate fields of Sociology, Economics, Civics, History, and Geography.

@Fusion thus far has been carried out only in distinct subject fields, separately. It is possible to carry this further by fusing subject in separate subject fields. For instance, the teaching together of English and American History in one class, with activities centered around the English-American History area, should be called fusion. At Aoyama Gakuin Girls' High School, cooking is taught in English by an American teacher. This cannot be done in every school, but it may well deserve special mention as a case of fusion attempted in Japan. There might be fusion of the National language and Social Studies areas, in some cases.

@If carried to its logical conclusion, the fusion of classes in the end amounts to the pupils' fusing the areas of his interest. A pupil interested in English and Mathematics would experience a great thrill in attempting to work out the problems in English. Pieces of formal knowledge would thus becme pieces of human experience.

@The fusion of English language study with other subject is difficult. At the time when quite a lot of fusion took place, during the reorganization of the curriculum in 1946-47, English was left as a separate subject for what were and are considered good and educationally justifiable reasons. Suppose 7th-grade English and Social Studies were fused. It is necessary in Social Studies to read very widely about social problems. During one year pupils would read not only the textbook, but they would search for data from pamphlets, library books, newspapers, magazines, reference books, and community institutions, among others. Since they do not, at the beginning of the 7th grade, have any knowledge of English, they obviously could not do all of the necessary work in the foreign language, or scarcely any of it. The learning of a foreign language, in its early stages, must inevitably follow a rather fixed, more or less inflexible, sequence. It becomes obvious that fusion of the two subjects would result in failure to achieve the aims of education. Fusion might be attempted under circumstances such as those cited(Aoyama Gakuin) where the teacher is very well qualified. Some fusion might be attempted in the upper secondary school after pupils have achieved a considerable degree of proficiency in speaking, reading, and writing the language. Because, at both school levels, English is essentially a subject requiring a carefully planned series of experiences arranged in a sequence and form more inflexible than that in the case of subjects taught in the native language, experience seems to indicate that better result are obtained in English when it is not fused with other subjects, and better result are obtained in the other subjects when they may go ahead and study materials freely in the native language without being impeded by a foreign language. Where fusion has been attempted in the United States, foreign languages have in almost all cases been left separate.

S. Core Curriculum

@Spears defines the core curriculumgas a provision for children of a common body of growth experiences, taking for granted that certain specific types of learning experiences are fundamental for all pupils".1


@Core curriculum commonly refers to a type of curriculum organization in which there is a core course which takes the place of two or more of the traditional subject fields. However, the core course is not simply a fusion of existing subjects. It is based upon an assumption that young people have certain basic needs in common, and in addition to these each individual has certain special needs. The core course or core is that part of the curriculum which takes as its major task the meeting of the commonneeds. The subjects remaining outside the core are intended primarily to serve special, individual needs.

@In the core curriculum organization, some of the subject matter fields, as currently organized, disappear. The personal and social problems of young people become the basis of the curriculum. The core course is organized to meet the common needs that young people have in order to solve problems of social living. Subject matter lines are ignored, and the materials are taken from many of the traditional subject fields as necessary. A theme may be adopted for an entire year of work, and around this theme are organized a number of resource units, each using as its specific theme one of the major contemporary problems of the community. Using these resource units as an outline, teachers and pupils draw upon all of the curriculum materials available as necessary and desirable. Within the core no subjects as such exist. In order to meet the special needs of students, subject such as Music, Art, Homemaking, vocational subjects, and foreign languages remain outside the core as special subject, organized more or less as they now are.

@Organization of the core curriculum differs in various places, but a common practice is to devote half of the school day to the core course in the 7th and 8th grades, two to three continuous periods in the 9th and 10th grades, and one or two class periods in the 11th and 12th grades. The area, in point of time, covered by the core course becomes less and less with advancing grade levels, and the special subjects occupy an increasingly larger amount of the total area of the curriculum. The core class is a group of pupils meeting together every day for the entire amount of time scheduled for the core course.

@No attempt can be made here to give the merits or demerits of the core curriculum organization. Here it should be pointed out that wherever the core organization exists, it includes only the experiences which are common to pupils. Foreign languages are left out because they are electives, not taken by all pupils, and also because they are considered a special subject, not meeting common needs but special needs of pupils. Pupils may take their choice of foreign languages offered by the school: English, French, German, Korean, Chinese, Hindustani. Since learning of a foreign language meets special instead of common needs, and there are differences in the language chosen because of different needs, foreign language subjects do not fit easily or naturally into a core curriculum organization.

T. Experience Curriculum

@A new term which has appeared fairly recently in educational circles is the experience curriculum. This is not necessarily a distinct type of curriculum organization, since almost all of the others mentioned have some elements of the experience curriculum in them. However, the experience curriculum, as presently discussed, differs from others in that it is based more directly upon the pupil than any of the others. This curricular approach is based upon the experiences which the pupils will be interested in, normally and naturally, during his growth and development. It is in a sense the fusion idea carried to its natural and normal extreme. It discards the idea that a pupil can be helped to grow most effectively by treating him as one growing in Mathematics for one period a day, in English for another period, in Japanese for another period, in History for another period, etc. It takes into account, in other words, the growth of the whole individual.

@As practiced in a few experimental schools, the pupil has great freedom in selecting learning activities for the accomplishment of his own educational goals. In the experience curriculum, the development of objectives and activities in advance or trying to organize them is discarded. The student chooses his own area of interest in which to work. He tells the teacher what he wants to do. The teacher helps him work out the scope of his problem and goes over with him the work that will need to be done in solving it. The pupil surveys the whole field of materials available and tries to plan the selection and use of these materials. The teacher helps in this, suggests important materials the pupil has overlooked, and supplies materials. The pupil collects data, organization it, engages in activities, formulates conclusions, and reports the results to the teacher and to the class. The plan assumes that each teacher must have a very deep understanding of the factors of pupils' growth and development and has had a broad preparation in many subject fields.

@In the experience curriculum, the big problem for the teacher is one of helping pupils individually in planning and providing the right situation which will continue to stimulate and drive them forward to active participation and learning. Sometimes the pupil may wish to take part in activities and experiences which may not be most economical of time or wisest for him to do. Pupils in the seventh grade, for instance, may propose to study American talkies as a part of their experience in English. The stories might interest them, but the kind of English they hear usually proves to be too difficult. The expert teacher, therefore, surveys in advance the pupil's problems and interests and needs, so that he may plan in advance to see that reasonable scope and sequence is maintained in the pupil's learning process. He will thus avoid duplications and abnormal sequences in the pupil's course of study.

@In the experience approach, the pupils select their activities and center of interest as much as they can, and then under the proper guidance of the teacher decide and plan their experiences. All subject matter fields which they need for the solution of their problems are then brought to bear.

@There is some question whether the experience curriculum approach fits into the ordinary classroom. Since each pupil's experiences are planned separately, a very favorable pupil-teacher ratio is required. Some proponents feel that no teacher can adequately guide more than 20 pupils in one class under this plan. Furthermore, the experience curriculm, as advocated by some of its champions, discards totally the idea of any planning in advance. There appears to be great danger that the social aims of education may be entirely or largely neglected, and important areas of social development overlooked.

U. Relationship of Types of Curriculum Organization to English Language Program

@These various types of curriculum organization have been discussed briefly because various movements are under way to apply them, sometimes without understanding their nature and purpose, to the English language program. The following comments are made, in summaryCin regard to these various types of organization, since they affect the English language program:

UDThe Unit Method of Organization

P. What Is a Unit?

@Consideration should be given by educators interested and concerned with English language curriculum to the possibility that the unit system of organization may be of value in the field. Thus far the unit system has been applied most commonly in the fields of National Language, Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies, and to a much less extent in the field of English language. However, possibility of its adaptation to the field of foreign languages should not be overlooked.

@The unit system is an attempt to group related experiences together under one central problem, theme, or topic. The usual procedure in teaching is to plan a year's work as a whole, then plan each 1esson as a part of the year's work, attempting to keep each day's lesson in line with the aims of year's work and to keepthe lessons arranged in a desirable sequence. This is so difficult that many teachers follow the path of least resistance, which is following the textbook exactly in day-by-day procedure throughout the school year, without paying much attention to aims, assuming that the textbook author has arranged the lessons in such a way that the aims will more or less automatically be achieved.

@Morrison, who did much of thc early work in unit organization and was, perhaps to a greater extent than any other individual, responsible for the introduction of the unit method, defines the unit asga comprehensive and significant aspect of the environment, of an organized science, of an art, or of conduct, which being learned results in adaptation in personality."2 W.C. Ruediger defines it asgany division of subject matter, large or small, that, when mastered, gives one an insight into, an appreciation of, or a mastery over some aspect of life".3 Lorena B. Stretch suggests thatgunits are organized subject matter and experiences brought together because of relationships, and presented to the pupils in such a manner as to develop within them the right attitudes, and skills..."4


@Discarding the idea that subject matter is an aim or an end in itself, we may summarize various definitions and say that the unit method is an attempt to group experiences so that they will be meaningful to the pupil, in terms of his own needs or purposes. Under the unit system of organization some major pupil need is made the basis of the unit, and is incorporated into its title. The unit title often is stated in the form of a problem, and all of the experiences of the unit are arranged and planned so that they are a part of an attempt to solve the problem. Subject matter is not neglected; indeed, as much or more of it is used than under the traditional method of organization. But under the unit approach, subject matter is used as and when it is needed to solve the central problems which are based upon pupil needs, and is not brought in in an unrelated way meaningless to the pupil.

@Prior to the organization of work into units, materials followed one another throughout a school year without any relationships to a central theme or problem, so that pupils tended to learn or memorize materials in an isolated way without seeing relationships which could lead to generalization and often without seeing relationships between these materials and their own lives. The introduction of the unit system gave impetus to a movement to relate the materials of education directly to pupils' lives. Under the early approach to the unit system of organization, the subject was broken down into a number of units, and each unit was concerned with some central thought or problem. The materials and subject matter were then all related to the central problem in a given unit, which tended to motivate pupils to learn materials not for the sake of the materials themselves but because they helped in understanding and solving a problem. Subject matter is not learned indiscriminately, but is limited at any given time to those materials related to the problem.

This approach was a considerable improvement over the straight subject matter approach, but still had limitations in that it did not insure that the needs of pupils would be met. In determining what units are to be taught, it is better, in the first stages, to disregard subject matter as such, and determine titles and content of units according to the needs, purposes, and experiences of the pupils. In other words, the unit begins with the learner, and not with what is to be learned. The individual has certain needs, which are determined largely by his own individuality interacting with and conditioned by his physical and social environment in which he lives. It may be said that all pupils of a certain degree of maturity living in a given social and physical environment have many needs in common, while at the same time each individual has special needs. Fulfi11ing these needs, consciously or unconsciously, is a purpose of the individual. Thus if learning experiences are definitely planned so that they fulfi11 the needs of the individual, they will become his purposes and he will then consciously strive to learn in order to fulfi11 his own needs. This works as a very powerful motivation in learning. In order for the learner to accomplish his purposes, he will find that he has a need for certain kinds of experiences. It is these experiences, chosen on the basis of pupil needs, arranged in a desirable psychological sequence, that constitute the unit. Thus a unit may be said to be the sum total of related experiences which carry out the purposes of the learner in fulfi11ing one or more of his own needs. In building units, rather than taking a subject and trying to divide it into parts or units, the approach should be to build up units one by one, all of the units planned for one year's work constituting a subject.

@Under the unit system of organization, related experiences are grouped together under a central problem, theme, or topic, and the problem, theme, or topic is based upon a need which is common to all of the pupils of the class. Each unit has its aims, andd pupil experiences are planned specifically and directly to enable each pupil to achieve the aims. Evaluation of the unit is conducted specifically in accordance with the stated aims, to determine the degree of achievement of the aims. Since the pupil experiences in a given unit will run for two weeks, a month, or perhaps two months, the immediate aims are constantly before the pupils and the teacher, instead of being remote. Units throughout a year are arranged in a desirable psychological sequence, one unit merging into another. The aims of all units are related to the aims of the year's work, and those in turn to the aims of the subject, and those in turn to the major aims of the secondary school.

Q. The Resourse Unit and the Teaching Unit

@There are in general two types of units: (1) The resource unit and (2) the teaching unit. The resource unit is a reservoir of ideas for the teacher; the pupils never see it. It provides for the teacher, in a convenient form, suggestions in regard to titles of units, and in connection with each title, suggested aims, content of the unit, pupil experiences, methods of evaluation, and a bibliography of reference materials for both pupils and teachers. The teaching unit is planned cooperatively by the pupils and teacher. While the resource unit contains many suggested aims, in the teaching unit the teacher and pupils list those they consider desirable. The resource unit covers a considerable scope of content, the teaching unit a much smaller one. The resource unit contains many suggestions as to pupil experiences; the teaching unit those actually practicable and desirable for the class. The resourse unit contains many suggestions as to methods of evaluation; the teaching unit restricts evaluation techniques to those which are useful in evaluating the specific aims selected by the class. Several teaching units may be made from one resource unit. As an author has suggested in the publication, General Methods of Teaching in the Lower and Upper Secondary Schools,5 the resource unit isgthe mother of teaching units". Resource units may be developed by educators on the national level and printed in Courses of Study. They may be developed by prefectural educators and made available for use by teachers. They may be developed by groups of teachers in a local community or in school. After development, they can be used by each teacher as a source of ideas for the development of teaching units.


@There are several ways of organizing a resource unit. Perhaps the most common way is to have (1) an overview of the unit; (2) a statement of objectives or anticipated outcomes; (3) an analysis of the problem or scope and sequence arragement; (4) a list of suggested pupil activities; (5) suggestions in regard to evaluation; and (6) a list of references and materials which will be useful in the unit.

@The overview is a statement of the significance of the problem or topic around which the unit is centered. It states why the problem is important to the pupils of the grade for which it is intended, and how the problem is related to the needs of the pupils. It shows how the unit may contribute to the three major aims of the secondary schools. Certain significant information about the problem is given here.

@The section on objectives, or anticipated outcomes, lists objectives which the compilers suggest. These need not be and should not be accepted by the class as they are. Learning is the modification of behavior for the better, according to standards set up by the society in which learning takes place. The pupil experiences in any unit must be based on aims, which may be desirably stated as changes in pupil behavior that are anticipated as a consequence of the experiences provided by the unit. The term behavior, as used here, does not refer merely to covert or outward forms or behavior, but to the thinking process, the attitudes and the entire personality of the individual. The statement of aims should be specific and be written in terms of knowledges, understandings, skills, abilities, attitudes, appreciations, habits, and ideals.

@The scope and sequence section of the unit is the sum total of problems or topics into which the major topic or problem is divided, or analyzed. The central problem is likely to be too broad in its scope to be attacked as it is. Hence the large problem must be analyzed into a number of basic problems which will be useful to pupils in their study. The sequence is a suggested arrangement of these subsidiary problems for studay, according to psychological principles of organization, the nature of the learner, the nature of the learning process, and the nature of the subject.

@The list of suggested pupil activities or experiences is usually, or often, the largest part of the unit. Here are listed many possble type of pupil activities which might serve to accomplish the aims of the unit. There are different ways of listing these activities, but they often are listed as being initiatory, developmenta1, and culminating. The purpose of the initiatory activities, of course, is to introduce the unit in such a way as to challenge the interest of the class and to get the unit activities organized. The developmental activities are concerned with collecting data about the problem or the topic, analyzing it, discussing, or considering it, or, in the case of language and some other subject,, engaging in necessary study of the dataor drill in connection with it. The culminating activities are those in which the pupils reach what conclusions they can, apply the conclusions to their lives, sum up what they have learned, and concentrate on sharpening the experiences they have had in the unit for long retention. This section of the unit lists many more activities than any one class could or should use.

@The evaluation section of the unit lists suggested techniques for evaluating the achievement of the knowledges, understandings, attitudes, appreciations, skills, abilities, and ideals which were listed as objectives. It is essential to evaluate the degree of accomplishment of each of these aims in the case of each pupil. Evaluation should always be based on the listed aims.

@The bibliography section contains lists of books, magazine articles, motion pictures, newspapers, slides, recordings, community resourses, and other materials which will be useful in developing the unit. This is usually a very inclusive list, and more materials are likely to be listed than will be available to any one class, or could be used by any one class even if they were available. These references are of varying degrees of difficulty, in order to meet the needs of all students. They are of many kinds, and locating them will teach pupils the techniques of locating information. Separate lists of materials for use by the teacher and the pupils may be included.

@There is no essential difference between the resource unit and the teaching unit in organization. A teaching unit may have exactly the same sections as the resource unit. The difference is that the teacher would use, from the resource unit, only those items which were applicable to the local situation or which are considered desirable.

R. Developing a Teaching Unit

@In developing a teaching unit, the following principles are pertinent:

@This is only a brief discussion of unit organization. It is suggested that before proceeding further each reader refer to Chapters V and IV of the professional book General Methods of Teaching in the Lower and Upper Secondary Schools, published by the Ministry of Education in 1950 and the book The Course of Study in Social Studies, I, to be published in 1951.

S. Applicability of the Unit System to Foreign Languages

@The structure of units varies according to subjects. In the Social Studies, for instance, each unit is based on a major social problem which is of significance to pupils because they are members of society. For example, a typical unit in the Social Studies may be titled:gHow Do We Cooperate through Government to Provide for the General Welfare?" The Social Studies course would consist of a number of such units, each based on a major social, economic, or political problem, arranged in a desirable sequence. Science units are based on phases or aspects of the physical environment of the pupil, and also are usually stated as problems. For example, a typical Science unit might be titled:gHow Are We Helped By Plant and Animal Life?" It becomes immediately apparent that in the field of foreign languages a basis for unit organization which is different from that used in Science and Social Studies is required. In Social Studies and Science the basis for the unit is a problem of the social environment or the physical environment. In language the unit should be based upon a problem in the field of language. In other words the unit should use as its basis a language function. Obviously 7th grade pupils, who are just beginning to learn English, are not in a position toundertake the solution of content problems in English, since as yet they have, in the beginning, no knowledge of the language, no vocabulary, no ability to use it in speaKing, reading, and writing. Therefore, units in the language field should be based upon some subdivided function of hearing, speaking, reading, and writing. The best approach is to go back and study the nature of teaching a foreign language, and derive the type of units that would be useful from that study.

@It has been noted that during the first few years of a language the primary aims are functional in nature. The pupil may also accomplish cultural aims as he learns the language, and especially after a certain degree of proficiency in using the language is acquired. The cultural aims may be of great importance, but it is evident that they cannot be accomplished at all without prior achievement of some of the functional aims. From this we may gather that the organization of the work in English language must be functional, and this in turn means that unit organization must be functional.

@Below are given a number of sample units. No attempt is made to cover the entire six grades of work by any means. Those schools and teachers which choose to use the unit method of organization should work out their own units, or perhaps they can be developed by a group of English teachers working together in a community or area.

@In regard to the unit system of organization it is significant that there is little, if any, material on the subject in the field of foreign language teaching that is comprehensive. This is due in large measure to a lack of experimentation in this field and apparently to an arbitrary assumption that the unit system of organization is not suited to the field of foreign languages. This may mean that its merits are doubted and or that the technical difficulties are considered as too great to make the use of the system advisable. Wherever the unit system is used, therefore, utmost attention must be paid to the problem of gradation and progression and to all other factors pertinent to effective teaching. Any system is good only if it produces good results.

T. Sample Units

@`DSample Unit-7th-Grade

Becoming Acquainted with the English Language

@aDSample Unit-9th or 10th Grade

Developing Good Manners and Having Consideration for Other People in Preparing for and Having a Party


@In learning any language an indispensable criterion is to relate it to the social life of which it is a part. Because language and social relationships are inseparable, language behavior and social behavior of a people depend on and influence each other for good or for bad. Consequently, it is possible to use the English language, or for that matter any other language, in a disagreeable way to antagonize and offend others, or in an agreeable way to gain friends and to become efficiently functioning members of groups to which people may belong.

@It is, needless to say, essential that in the learning of English good language manners are developed. For this reason the manners learned should not be merely formal but should be based on a real consideration for the feelings, opinions, and rights of others that is becoming to a democracy.

@The fundamental purpose of this unit is to help pupils learn and understand what good manners are as recognized among an English-speaking community, to help them develop the ability to apply their knowledge through vicarious experiences, to develop among them an acceptable attitude of consideration, and to help them behave in such a way as to cause both them and the English-speaking people with whom they may associate feel perfectly at home.





A few methods of evaluation are listed. The teachers, however, are expected to develop additional methods.

1. Performing introductions

@ @ @ @

2. SayinggThank you" when a favor

is done.

3. Etc.

@ @ @ @ @

R. The teacher may make a check-list of his own, similar to the above, and make notes concerning pupil behavior in regard to good manners throughout the weeks of the unit. Later a discussion is held concerning the good and bad aspects of pupil behavior.

S. The best way to evaluate the achievement of the five aims listed undergCultural and General Educational objectives" is through an anecdotal record. See the following publication for details concerning the use of the cumulative record, Pupil Guidance in the Lower and Upper Secondary Schools, Ministry of Education, 1949.

T. Use a multiple choice type test to check usage of relative pronouns and syntactical knowledge acquired. See the chapter on Evaluation for a full description of this technique.

U. Have each pupil in the class, at some time during the unit, perform an introduction, and have the class evaluate the way in which it was done. The teacher should give the class full guidance and assistance in all such activities.

bDSample Unit-12th Grade

English in Experiences Preparatory to and in Getting out a Class English Language Newspaper


@The newspaper has become such an important means of communicating and acquainting oneself with current affairs in one's community, the nation, and the world at large, that it is impossible for anyone to keep in pace with the times withoutrecourse a newspaper for any length of time. An English language newspaper is an excellent means of keeping in touch with current affairs, opinions, and problems through the medium of the English language. It is particularly suitable for acquainting oneself with straightforward, colorless style of English of an informative type. Its added suitability from the point of view of teaching lies in the fact that the student is to an extent already familiar with tHe matter because of his knowledge of its nature through radio broadcasts and newspapers in the vernacular. Most students, after leaving school, will probably read newspapers only in their own language, but there is an advantage in learning to read an English language newspaper apart from the gain made in the knowledge of the language. From English language newspapers, especially those published abroad, students can get a slant on the news and expressions of opinion and viewpoints which they could not obtain through the Japanese press. For purposes of understanding English-speaking peoples, it is highly desirable that they come in touch with their viewpoints through reading their newspapers.

@The purpose of this unit is principally to provide experiences necessary to the getting up of a class English language newspaper including functional experiences conducive to and related to understanding and expressing oueself in English. This would mean that the students will on the one hand be provided with opportunities for learning to co-operate with others, to behave in such a way as is becoming to good citizens, and to do things efficiently, and on tne other hand be taught how to read an English language newspaper with understanding, discrimination, and appreciation, and to get up a paper of their own.

@Because of the large scope such an experience offers, the students will necessarily engage in many types of hearing, speaking, reading, writing experiences. The experiences should lead to a better ability to engage in interesting and intelligent conversation on matters relating to the times and result in greater proficiency in reading, and in writing clearly, intelligently, and in an interesting manner.

@Newspapers are often accused of carelessness in grammar and style; but an efficient teacher should be able to spot such faults. Because of the close relationship between the essay and the newspaper, as evidenced by the history of the essay and essayists, a study of a few essays whose style lends itself to journalism should be of value in meeting this defect. The vocabulary of newspapers is paricularly useful in that it is intended for the masses, and the choice of words and expressions is therefore less likely to be onesided or influenced by idiosyncrasies.





@A few methods of evaluation are given below by way of suggestion. To these the teacher may add others which he may think necessary or valuable.


1 J. Minor Gwynn, Curriculum Principles and Social Trends,Macmilan Co., New York, Copyright, 1943, p. 366. Quoted by permission of the publishers.

2 J. Minor Gwynn, Curriculum principles and Social Trends, Macmillan Co., New York, Copyright, 1943, p. 173. Quoted by permission of the publishers.

3 W.C. Ruediger,Teaching procedures, Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, 1932, p. 244. Quoted by permission of the publishers.

4 Lorena B. Stretch, The Curriculum and the Child, Educationa1 Publishing Corporation, Darien, 1939, p. 71. Quoted by permission of the publishers.

5 General Methods of Teaching in the Lower and Upper Secondary Schools, Ministry of Education, 1950, p. 215