I. Definition, Purposes, and Principles

of Evaluation


1. Definition of Evaluation

When the word evaluation is used there is a tendency to think of giving tests and examinations for information and knowledge, and frequently for understanding to determine how much pupils have learned in subject matter materials, and to give them grades or marks accordingly. This is a very limited and narrow concept of evaluation and will not suffice in scope in the evaluation of other aims of evaluation such as habits, attitudes, various skills and abilities, appreciations and others. There is also a tendency to think that paper-pencil tests are the only means of evaluation. While they are very important, such tests can measure only a portion of the outcomes of the educational program.


2. Fundamental Purpose of Evaluation

The fundamental purpose of evaluation is to measure the growth and development of pupil along many lines in accordance with the aims of education in order that teaching and learning can be improved; and reasons for lack of growth in a particular area or areas can be identified, and remedial measures instituted. Evaluation is based directly on aims. A class begins its work in a subject or course with a number of very specific aims which are intended to be accomplished. The content of the subject or course in terms of pupil experiences is determined by these aims, and is so planned that the aims may most completely and expeditiously be achieved by each pupil. The major purpose of evaluation is to measure, in the case of each pupil, the degree to which the aims have been achieved; and identify the reasons why they were not achieved satisfactorily or completely as desired, and to plan further teaching in view of these facts.


3. What to Keep in Mind when Planning and Using Evaluation Instruments

In planning and using evaluation instruments, it is important to keep in mind that what we are interested in is pupil development in terms of desirable knowledge, skills, abilities, understandings, attitudes, habits, appreciations, and ideals. We are not interested merely in pupils’ knowing a fact or sets of facts, so far as facts are concerned, but in their applying or using such facts in their lives. For example, in English it is not enough for a pupil merely to know how to speak good English; instead it is desired that the pupil actually understand, speak, read, and write good English. It has been determined that a pupil may know very well the correct usage of a language and be able to pass, with high marks, a written test in usage, and at the same time use atrociously bad forms in speaking the language. If one of the aims of the English language course is to learn to speak English effectively in various social situations, then obviously if we desire to evaluate the degree to which this aim is being or has been achieved by a certain pupil, we must actually hear him speak in a number of different situations. It is true that evaluation of this sort is not so objective as using an objective-type paper-and-pencil test, but sometimes there are no objective instruments available for evaluation of a certain aim.

To give another example, one of the major aims of the English language course, particularly in the upper secondary school, is appreciation of literature. In order to evaluate achievement of this aim, suppose a teacher gave a test containing questions calling for knowledge about the authors of poems or stories and an interpretation of quoted lines or passages. Even though a pupil made a high score on such a test, we could not conclude that he has necessarily developed an appreciation of literature, since knowledge, although usually a prerequisite of appreciation, is not appreciation itself. A better method of evaluation in this case might be to check the books which are typical of the type of literature to be appreciated that he has read voluntarily during the term.

Another important principle of evaluation is that it is continuous. It is not something that takes place only at the end of a unit, a term, or a school year. It is safe to say if the evaluation program of a school consists only in giving periodic examinations for purpose of giving grades or marks to students, it must be classified as a poor and inadequate system.


4. Appraising the Growth of Pupils in English Language Abilities 1

Just as doctors diagnose patients as the first prerequisite to a cure, so teachers must diagnose their pupils in their learning as one of the first step toward correcting their weak points and promoting their strong points. Diagnosis of the pupils' learning is carried on through proper evaluation devices, by means of which teachers can find in particular the strong and weak points of both the individual and the class. If he majority of the members of a class fail in a given test, it is almost certain that the teaching methods, or even the teacher and/or tester are at fault. If only a minority of the class fail in a test, it usually may be assumed: (1) that they have not been able to keep up with average standards, (2) that there has not been enough individualized instruction, or (3) that these pupils have some difficulties which the teacher has not recognized and helped them overcome. Wherever the faults may be, where any weakness appears, and is identified, the remedial procedures should be determined and applied. A pupil may have poor learning habits; he may not realize that some things should be memorized, whereas others should be reasoned out for example. The reason or cause of the weakness may come to light. These may be found out through tests and various other evaluation methods.


5. Determining Faults in the Teaching as a. Basis for Improvement

Since pupils often are afraid of taking examinations because they frequently misunderstand their purpose, it might make them less fearful if they understand that half of the purpose of the examination is to measure the effectiveness of the teaching and to determine the faults in the teaching methods.

Teachers are responsible for the pupils’ failure in some degree. Failure may often be caused by poor teaching procedures. When the teaching procedures are fully prepared and carried on properly, most of the pupils may not fail to understand and master what they are taught. Thus the results of the examinations may show the teachers in what way their preparation and procedure are not correct and what points of teaching techniques they must change or improve.


6. Using the Results of Examinations 2

The last and ultimate object of evaluation lies in utilizing the results of the examinations. The results of evaluation should be used as a guide to pupil guidance, improving learning habits, informing pupils and parents of achievement, determining promotion, measuring the quality of instruction, providing records on which entrance applications to an upper secondary school or a university may be based, properly placing pupils in classes, and helping them choose proper professions or trades. The uses are numerous and lasting, and the results of evaluation should be kept in the cumulative record by means of marks of which particulars will be explained in the part on scoring.



II. Criteria of a Good Test or Examination

In adopting or using any educational program there should be criteria by which to determine its degree of usefulness. To determine the adequacy of examinations the following criteria are required.

1. Validity (“the degree to which a test measures what it purports to measure”)3

This is one of the most important characteristics of a good examination. If the test is not valid, it is worthless; validity can be determined only when the purpose of the test is clear. Therefore when constructing tests the following should be considered:

A. What are you testing? information? hearing? speaking? writing? or any strength or weakness in several particulars?

B. Does the test agree with the objectives of the course? If it is a survey or general diagnostic test, does it cover the content of the course fully as taught? Moreover, is each question significant in relation to the objectives of the course and the specific things taught?

C. Are there any extraneous factors such as difficulties in vocabulary and pronunciation? Are the questions so clearly stated that there can be no misunderstanding of their meaning?

D. Is there no limit of time to influence the results of the examination when the purpose of the examination is not speed?

E. Can you give clear directions as to the nature of the examinations and the specific performances expected?

2. Reliability (“The degree to which a test measures what it does measure.”)4

That the examination has reliability is as important as that it have validity. To insure high reliability the following should be borne in mind and adhered to in the construction of the test:


A. The questions must be made up of items as representative as possible of the whole field which the pupils have covered. If the items are few, the test will not cover what the pupils know or have attained. Accordingly, the result may not give a reliable picture of pupil growth.

B. The questions must be representative of the grades of difficulty and arranged according to the grades of difficulty. A test should include both easy items and difficult items so that it can measure the abilities of the poorest pupils and the most superior pupils at the same time, as well as those intermediate to these two extremes.

C. All the factors that prevent the pupils from doing their best, such as distractions, fatigue occasioned by the length of the test, or illness, or emotional tensions of many kinds should not be left out of consideration in constructing, giving, and scoring the tests, as well as in utilizing the results.


3. Objectivity (“The characteristic of a test which eliminates subjective opinion or judgment in the process of scoring it.”)5

Our feelings and memory can not be relied upon. Therefore to have objectivity in the examination is to some degree useful for eliminating the faults caused by subjectivity. Objectivity can be obtained in several ways. For example, in the true-false type of question or information, the question should be worded so exactly, that there is no ambiguity, and die correct answer call for no expression of opinion; as another example, in multiple choice types of examinations, it is equally important that it be worded exactly, that there is but one correct choice, and that no opinion on the part of the answerers is called for. Particulars of the methods will be mentioned later. To insure more complete objectivity it is often necessary for the test-maker to formulate a key-a list of acceptable answers, to use in constructing and scoring the tests.


4. Ease of Administration

Ease of administration in examinations should be considered as well, though this is not of so great importance as validity or reliability. Ease of administration must be considered from the standpoint of pupils and from that of teachers. The questions should be clear and simple and fully explained and should also be supplemented orally by the examiner. If the questions are of a new type a sample of the answers should be shown. From the standpoint of the teacher questions should be organized so as to be scored easily and if possible in some uniform manner with the use of prepared keys. To obtain ease of administration the quality and size of the paper, the letters, etc. should be considered. In many cases the manuscript is hard to read, or the blackboards are often not good enough because the light is poor and also the situation may not be good. In such cases the pupils cannot do their best in examinations. These difficulties should be eliminated.


III. Measurable Elements


When examinations are given, what to measure must be clear. In measuring English abilities, the five elements should be borne in mind, namely the development of the ability to listen to, to speak, to read, to write English, and to learn about foreign countries and their peoples. The test questions should be those that meet the aims effectively.

The following list of measurable elements, which are quoted from Teaching A Modern Language, includes several for which suitable tests are available.6

1. Hearing and Oral Expression (Aural-Oral Tests)

A. Dictation

B. Aural Comprehension, indicated by written or oral replies to oral questions, or execution of instructions

C. Phonetic accuracy

D. Identification of objects in response to oral naming of them

2. Reading (Reading Tests)

A. Content questions (usually in English) to be answered in English

B. Paraphrase or summary of material read, based on a list of guide words

C. True-false and multiple-choice statements based on reading

D. Multiple-choice questions based on reading

E. completion of statements based on reading

F. Directions for treating material, student comprehension being shown by execution of instructions (All the above approaches may be used with sight work or with familiar materials.)

G. Translation into Japanese

3. Writing (including Grammar Tests)

A. Substitution

(1) Changing the number of words from singular to plural or vice-versa

(2) Changing tenses or moods

(3) Replacing nouns by pronouns

B. Correction of sentences in which there are mistakes: when these are mingled with correct sentences, they may be labeled right or wrong

C. Completion of English sentences by filling in blanks for which Japanese words or uninflected English forms are given

D. Multiple-choice, in which English sentences are completed by selecting the correct form from several English forms

E. Written and oral composition based on a picture or list of guide words

F. Translation of Japanese sentences into English

G. Statement of rules (To be used but rarely if at all)

4. Vocabulary (Tests)

A. Translation of lists of words, English to Japanese language or Japanese to English, oral or written

B. Multiple-choice, in which students choose the correct translations of a given word from 4 or 5 possible forms

C. Matching of Japanese and English lists

D. Listing of synonyms or antonyms in English

E. Classification of lists of words under various headings

5. General Cultural Background (Civilization Tests)

A. Identification of names of people, places, and things, and of historical or cultural references

B. Matching of names with description given

C. Insertion on blank maps of names of rivers, mountains, towns, and provinces, or of the distribution of industries, the location of castles, universities, cathedrals, etc.

D. Proverbs: completion, matching English and Japanese lists, matching lists each containing several half proverbs

E. Checking of true-false, or multiple-choice statements based on the materials studied

F. Recitation of poems or songs

G. Literature study”

It must be noted that this is a list of easily measurable elements. It is equally important to measure what might be called “intangibles” i.e. the accomplishment of aims having to do with the development of good habits, character, ideals, attitudes, and appreciation.


IV. Methods: How to Measure


1. Standard Achievement Tests

By standard achievement tests are meant those tests the exercises of which have been carefully selected and evaluated and for which norms have been established.7

Such kinds of tests cannot be constructed by classroom teachers, but should be developed by both educational experts especially well-trained in the making of tests and by psychologists equipped with the best principles recognized as essential to proper test construction.

''A test is standardized when (1) it is composed of exercises which have been selected in the light of current teaching emphasis and curricular contents, when (2) these exercises have been statistically evaluated as to innate difficulty, and when (3) the test itself is accompanied by norms permitting the interpreting of the results of pupil reactions to the test in terms of levels of accomplishment.8 When these terms are fulfilled, the standard tests will come to function at their highest efficiency as instructional instruments.

The content of standard test usually is selected by groups of subject matter experts operating in close contact with the most respected textbooks and courses of study, statement of objectives, teaching methods, and expressions of the philosophy of a subject. Furthermore, each item of the content and its expression usually have been subjected to the criticism of many other experts and have been tried out on a sufficient number of pupils; from these preliminary tryouts have then computed statistical measures of the difficulty and validity of the item.

The following values are suggested by V. A. C. Hemmon (Achievement Tests in Modern Foreign Languages).9

“A. Tests set standards of accomplishment at different levels of training in objective, realistic, and comparable terms.

B. Tests make possible more accurate comparisons of attainment in different schools and classes under different methods and conditions.

C. Tests serve as a means of classification and placement to secure homogeneity in classes in terms of actual achievement in the languages rather than in terms of time spent in study.

D. Tests furnish instruments of analysis for investigation of the effects of varying ages, intelligence levels, methods, curricula, and objectives.

E. Tests aid in diagnosing deficiencies and locating them for definite remedial exercises.

F. Tests aid in defining in more specific terms the immediate objectives of instruction.”

Standard achievement tests are the work of subject matter and test specialists; are intended for wide use; and are accompanied by norms, based on results of testing a sufficient number of pupils of appropriate age, grade, and ability.

Norms enable comparisons with other groups of pupils; thus a teacher may compare the achievement of his class with that of pupils throughout the nation. The type of standardization group of pupils may be divided according to age, sex, or grade, and made representative either of the nation at large or of urban groups, rural groups, etc.10

Non-standardized test results and the subjective ratings assigned by teachers to essay-type examinations provide an inadequate basis for a more exact measurement of progress, since there is no exact comparative point of beginning from which to express progress. Norms of the standard test make it possible to reveal progress and improvement in a very definite manner.

Because of definiteness and objectivity, the standard test points out individual differences in achievement and often in capacity as well, and suggests specific goals of achievement for the teacher. It opens to the administrator hitherto untouched sources of information useful in giving the pupil proper educational and vocational guidance. It reveals to the teacher specific weaknesses in individual pupil accomplishments so clearly that he can apply effective instructional and corrective methods.11

The standard test can be applied in the early stages of the educational ladder; in promotion from one class to another; in admission to secondary and higher education; in graduation; in transfer from one institution to another.


2. Teacher-made Objective-type Tests

Teacher-made tests are constructed by the classroom teacher, or at least within the school system, and are for local use only. In either case, the characteristics should include two important features: “(1) brevity of pupil response, and (2) absence of personal judgment in the scoring of the examinations”12

There seems to be no generally accepted compilation of the different forms of objective tests. With the refinement of test construction, new types of variations of familiar forms will constantly be added to those now in existence. A list of the more common forms is given. Different forms should be used, since variety is important in evaluation as well as in teaching methods.


A. Simple Recall

The simple recall item is employed to measure factual knowledge and to test the pupil's ability to identify things described.

This type of test is easy to construct and a evaluation clearly what a teacher wants to measure. But it cannot be fully adapted to measure abilities to apply facts, .to perceive complex relationships, and to draw logical inferences.

The simple recall item is usually in the form of a statement with a blank at the end of the statement in which a pupil is to write the correct answer, or in a form of a direct question which is to be responded to briefly by a single word, a number or a short phrase in a place pointed out. It is not easy to score, because of the tendency for the responses by different pupils to lack uniformity in form.

Therefore short, definite, clear-cut answers should be required, or the items should be changed so as to restrict the possible number of correct answers.



    (1) Write the singular of each of the following:










    (2) Write in words the following:



  4.the year 1949

5.Tel. No. 33-1043

    (3) Write the Japanese(English) for the following English(Japanese) on the dotted line to the right.













3.after school








    (4) Write the correct answer on the dotted line.
1.Who wrote Gullivers Travels?

2.Who wrote Robinson Crusoe?

Answer ..........


    (5) Put the right answer on the dotted line.

1.The telephone was invented by ..........

2.The first president of the U.S.A. was .........

    (6) Change into the past from:

1.He goes to school.

2.He does not go to school, for he has a holiday.


B. Completion

In the sentence and paragraph completion exercise, a pupil is given the sentence or the paragraph in which there are two or more blanks to be filed with words, numbers, or phrases to complete its meaning.

This exercise, as well as the simple recall item, is factual and measures the pupil's unit of thought and integration of his ideas.

In making this type of test, the test-maker should avoid copying a sentence or a paragraph directly from the text and should not require the pupil to fill in too many blanks in one sentence or a paragraph.



(1) Fill each blank with a word where necessary:

1. The Shinano is...... longest river in Japan.

2. How....... floors has your house?

3. I hope you-enjoy your trip.

(2) Put in the Pronouns or nouns in proper order, choosing from the words in parentheses:-

1. __ and __ will go there together.(I, you)

2. __ and one of her __ are going to play tennis.(friends, Mary)

(3) Read the following paragraph and answer the questions in English in the blanks which are provided.

Rip Van Winkle lived in a little village near the Hudson River. He was a good man. He loved the children in the village and was loved by them all. Sometimes he told them stories and sometimes he played marbles with them.

1. Where did Rip Van Winkle live? …………………………………………

2. Did he love children? …………………………………………

3. With whom did he play marbles sometimes? ……………………………..

“(4) DIRECTIONS. In the paragraph below, each number shows where a word has been left out. Read each paragraph carefully, and wherever there is a number decide what word has been left out. Then write the missing word in the answer column below, as shown in the sample. Write JUST ONE WORD on each line. Be sure to write each answer on the line that has the same number as the number of the missing word in the paragraph.

      Sample of paragraph and the correct answers.
        a. Dick and Tom were playing ball in the field.

        Dick was throwing the   and   was trying to catch it.

        b. Answers  1. ball   2. Tom

The following is a sample passage with numbered blank spaces in which the pupils are to put the correct answers.”13

a. Paragraph

In olden days men made their own pens from the quills of feathers. It required considerable skill to cut a pen properly so as to suit one's individual taste in writing. Students were always on the lookout for a goose, a swan, a turkey, or some other bird of feathers. Goose quills made the most satisfactory  for general  , but schoolmasters liked pens made from the  of swan feathers because they fitted best behind the ear.

    b. Answers




Place correct answers in the appropriate numbered space.


C. Alternate-Response (True-False)

True-False statement and the Yes-No response are the most common of the alternate-response items. In true-false statements, the pupil is required to mark every statement as true or false, or as correct or incorrect. In the Yes-No response type, he is required to answer either Yes or No to the designated question.

This type of test is easy to make and most widely used in subject-matter field.

The advantage lies in capability of testing more individual items in a short time than with any other type of test. However, there is a tendency for the pupil being tested to rely on his ability at guessing the correct answer rather than demonstrating factual knowledge of the subject in this type of test. Therefore, in rather advanced classes tests should be constructed in such a way that thinking, judging, inferring, and not merely memory for facts are required of the pupils.

The pupil is required to encircle or to underline a “T” or “F”, or “Yes” or “No”, or mark an “X” or an “O” in the parentheses.

Specific directions should be given in judging whether or not the answer is correct or incorrect. For example, if any part of the statement is correct the directions might be as follows: “If any part of the statement is false, regardless of any other part being correct, then mark the statement as false”.


(1) Cross out the correct word.

1. He (did, done) the work himself.

2. (I, my) name is Wood.

3. Where (is, are) your home?

“(2) Cross out the incorrect word.

1. I need a piece of (lead, led) pipe.

2. Can you see (threw, through) this telescope?

3. I'm glad (it's, its) a bright day.

4. They waited an (our, hour) for the train.

5. I don't want to (break, brake) an appointment.”14

(3) Draw a line under the right answer to each question.

1. Do good children keep promises? Yes No

2. Do all people rent houses? Yes No

(4) Encircle “T” if the statement is true and “F” if not.

1. Property of others may justly be destroyed

if they have too much. T F

2. Friends are conveniences merely and should

be treated as such. T F


D. Multiple Choice

The multiple choice is a test in which the pupil is to select the correct response out of three to five responses. Of these responses, one is correct and the other, though they look plausible, are all incorrect. The pupil must select the correct answer to complete the statement or to answer the question, and put it in the designated parentheses or on the dotted line.

In the best-answer type of multiple-choice testing, there are two or three acceptable answers, and the one response which is better than any other response is to be selected by the pupil.

This type of test is adaptable to measure inferential reasoning, reasoned understanding, discriminative power and judgment of the pupil. It also can be used to measure progress in vocabulary, words, translation, reading comprehension, and grammar.

Multiple choice and its many variant types are valuable, though they are not so easy to construct as other types of test. Moreover they are objective in scoring. In making this type of test all responses should be made plausible.

The disadvantages of the multiple-choice test are: (1) the difficulty of constructing the test items and, (2) the fact that they take more space on the written page than do other types. In regard to the first point, constructing even a single multiple-choice item with four or five plausible incorrect alternatives requires the ingenuity and psychological insight of the test-maker.15



(1) Put the correct word on the dotted line:

1. When ... (do, are, does) you start ... (for, at, in) school?

2. School begins ... (at, in, on) eight.

3. He ... (graduated, graduated out of, graduated from) an elementary school.

4. This is too dear. Show me a ... (better, bigger, larger, cheaper, nicer) one.

(2) Underline the right word:

The Diet Building was built as

1. a museum

2. a school

3. a court house

4. a hospital

5. an assembly hall

(3) Read the following and write the right number in each pair of parentheses:

The children enjoyed the strange five-mile ride through the wood very much. They wondered how the great horses could be so strong and wise as to pull so heavy a load with no other harness than a chain and a crooked piece of wood on their necks. They marveled at the way in which the team would sway obediently to right and left past trees at the command of the driver.

a. The ride was (1) across the plain (2) through the wood (3) on a muddy road (4) along a highway (5) over a mountain... ( )

b. Were the children accustomed to riding behind horses?

(1) yes (2) no (3) doubtful... ( )

c. The horses were (1) wild (2) tame (3) tired (4) obedient(5) thirsty... ( )

(4) In each group of four words given below there is one term which has relationship to the underlined word at the left of the item. Select the word by analogy and write its number on the line at the right.





1. bread

2. foot

3. pen

4. window




1. cat

2. neck

3. cake

4. foot




1. water

2. iron

3. lead

4. stones



1. box

2. foot

3. doll

4. coat



1. kitten

2. head

3. knife

4. penny



1. bird

2. neck

3. feet

4. bill


(5) Read the following Japanese sentence and encircle the number of the sentence in English which is the correct interpretation.

Watakushi wa kaze o hiite gakko o yasunde imasu.

1. I have a cold and am resting at school.

2. I have caught cold and have been absent from school.

3. I have taken cold and am absent at school.

(6) “Choose the word or words which correctly completes the statement and draw a line underneath it.



An edifice is... (a man, a tree, a building, a writer.)

1. An able person is... (awkward, tall, capable, clumsy.)

2. An azure sky is... (sunny, cloudy, blue, threatening.)

3. A serene person is… (calm, noisy, rough, old.)

4. Similar tests are... (identical, different, like, unpleasant.)”17

(7) In the left-hand column is a list of 15 different words. In the right-hand column, arranged in miscellaneous order, is a list of 18 words of which 15 are opposite or nearly opposite in meaning to the 15 words in the left-hand column. For each of the numbered lift-hand column, select the word from the right-hand column which is most nearly opposite in meaning and place the letter identifying it in the blank before the word in the left-hand column:


-1. simple

a. soft

-2. cold

b. true

-3. stupid

c. angry

-4. pretty

d. top

-5. wet

e. restless

-6. dark

f. frequent

-7. hard

g. intelligent

-8. thick

h. sudden

-9. bottom

i. low

-10. high

j. doubtful

-11. false

k. complicated

-12. certain

l. ugly

-13. rare

m. save

-14. aid

n. thin

-15. spend

o. dry


p. light


q. hinder


r. hot


E. Matching18

Matching exercises are combination of multiple choice. For example, words or statements listed on one side are to be matched, by their meaning, with other words or statements listed on the other side. Identifying numbers of letters are to be written in the parentheses before such items in one list. Both balanced and unbalanced matching exercises are widely used.

In balanced matching exercises each word or statement in one column is to be matched with only one word or statement in the other column, and the number of items in each column is the same. In unbalanced matching exercises, the statements on one side are more, in number, than those on the other side. Consequently some of the listed responses are not used. Also it is possible to construct a test in which some responses are used more than once, while some are not used at all.

Matching exercises are often rather highly factual and are used for testing who, what, when, and where types of relationships and identifying and naming abilities. However, they need not be limited to tests for knowledge of facts.

Maps, charts, and diagrams may be used for matching places and-names, objects and names, etc.

This type is rather simple and easy to construct, and it does not take much space. Therefore, it is rather widely applicable. It is preferable to employ 5 to 7 items in either list so as to reduce the chance of guessing.



(1) Directions: In the column at the left are the complete subjects of four sentences. In the column at the right are the complete predicates of four sentences. Select for each numbered sentence the predicate which completes it and place the letter identifying the predicate in the blank before the number.

-1. A Christmas tree a. are taken out and placed on the mantelpiece.
-2. Many colored balls b. is decorated in each home with lights.
-3. The Christmas Cards c. are handed to the children.
-4. The presents d. are hung on the tree.


(2) Directions: In the column at the left are five questions. In the column at the right are the five answers to the questions, arranged in miscellaneous order. Match the question in each case with its proper answer by placing the letters indicating the answer in the parentheses following the questions.



1. What is she? ( )

a. She is a music teacher.

2. What is he? ( )

b. They live in Yoyogi.

3. What is his name? ( )

c. That is Mr. Smith.

4. Who is that? ( )

d. He is a clerk.

5. Where do they live? ( )

e. His name is Ned.

(3) Match the Japanese word with the English one which is its equivalent in meaning by writing the number of the appropriate English word in each case in the parentheses following the Japanese word.

1. yuku ( )

a. return

2. kaeru ( )

b. soldier

3. hon ( )

c. gold

4. akai ( )

d. fast

5. ybin kyoku ( )

e. breakfast

6. heitai ( )

f. book

7. kin ( )

g. friend

8. hayaku ( )

h. go

9. chshoku ( )

i. post office

10. yjin ( )

j. red

(4) “Directions: Each of the following sentences contains an error. In the blank after each sentence, write the word which should be substituted for the one that is incorrect. Then, in the parentheses following the blank, write the number of the rule (from the list at the right) which you applied in making the correction.

1.Her and I are going.

   (   )

1. Double negative should be avoided.
2.The tree shed their leaves.

   (   )

2.An adjective should not be used to modify a verb.
3.We haven't no money.

   (   )

3.A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in number.
4.She does it good.

   (   )

4. The subject of a sentence is in the nominative  case.”19


Some General Suggestions for Constructing Objective Tests20

(1) Rules governing good language expression should be observed.

a) Carelessly framed and ungrammatical items are likely to be subject to misinterpretation.

b) The word used in objective items should be made familiar to all pupils, so that every pupil can understand the intent of all items.

c) It is undesirable to give items merely by using a statement in the exact textbook form, with a negative inserted, with a word omitted, or otherwise with minor adaptation as a test item.

(2) Each test item should be subject to one and only one interpretation.

(3) Items having obvious answers and clues and suggestions should be avoided, for they have no value in a test and may well lack validity.

(4) Items which can be answered by the exercise of intelligent reasoning alone should be avoided.

(5) Items should not be inter-related. In other words, an answer to the first should not determine responses for the related items.

(6) It is preferable, although not always possible, to have the answer in a column arrangement. The pupil is aided by such a constant position for responses, and scoring of the result is greatly facilitated.

3. Oral Tests

This type evaluation procedure is subject to the limitations of any oral procedure. The answers must be evaluated on the spur of the moment. There are no adequate standard instruments for the measurement of English conversation and oral composition.

Since the major aim of English language teaching is to develop the ability to use the language as a means of communication, oral tests should be so devised as to measure the skills and abilities in oral communication. In the process of evaluation, attention should be paid to pronunciation, articulation, stress, accent, fluency, intonation word-linking, and expression. It is generally better to try to evaluate these items separately. One system is to use a 5 or 7 point scale, and make as accurate an evaluation as possible for each pupil according to each of these aims.21

A. In an oral test a simple conversation can be carried on or a short explanation made.22


(1) “Suppose you were asked on the street where the nearest car-stop was. How would you direct the person?


1. How many windows are there in this room?

2. How old are you?

3. When and where were you born?

4. Where do you live?

5. How did you come here?

6. Which season do you like best? And why?

(3) Read the following aloud.

November is the month for fogs. In London and in some towns in the north of England the fogs are often so very thick that people cannot see the houses when they are walking in the streets. Sometimes the fogs are brown and sometimes they are yellow. Londoners call a fog a “pea-soup fog” when it is very dense because it is regarded as being like pea-soup which is thick and not transparent. Lamps are lighted in the houses and in the streets. Some people also carry a lantern. (Questions and answers to be given orally.)

1. What is the month for fogs in England?

2. When do Londoners call a fog “pea-soup fog”?

3. When there is a pea-soup fog, what do they do?

(4) True-false statements can be given orally by the teacher and answered by individual pupils. The following examples may suggest exercises of this type.

“1. John’s aunt was a young man.

2. Some apples are red.

3. Columbus discovered America.

4. Every day is Sunday.

5. One should always be polite in the company of old ladies.

6. The South Pole is colder then the North Pole because it is farther away from the sun.”23

If it is impossible to give an oral test, the questions may be answered in writing.

B. Grouping words (Breath-group test)


In the following written sentences, show what words should be read together by marking with a line the end of the group of words that should be read together. (The following is one correctly marked.)

A. number of monkeys/came to a stream. /The water was too deep/for them to cross/and there was no bridge. /They began to chatter noisily.

C. Accentuate English words correctly in the following manner by placing a mark over the accentuated vowel. You will see two words marked correctly. Mark the others correctly.

Examples: demcracy xcellent

(1) occur, difficult, interesting, Englishman

(2) parliament, tomorrow, invention, American

D. Show the syllables or words which would be accented if you were reading aloud.

1. Stop! I want to give you a very important piece of advice.

2. It is extremely late. I must go home and go to bed.

E. “In each line below is a series of five words. All words except one contain the same vowel sound. In the parentheses you are to indicate the symbol for this sound, then in the blank space to the left you are to write the word that does not contain this sound.”24


dark (phonetic symbol)( ) dark, cattle, that, bag, gas

1.________ ( ) boot, blue, lose, wood, soup

2. ________( ) play, said, break, paid, grey

3. ________( ) meat, piece, great, key, meet

4. Comprehension Tests25

One good way to test comprehension is to frame the item upon the principle of ability to carry out “directions.” Here the criterion of intelligent reading is ability to carry out from a printed order some concrete practical instruction. Each order may be typewritten or printed upon a separate card.

A series of such directions is given below. A card is handed to the pupil with an explanation such as the following:

“Read what is on this card; and do what it says. You need not read it aloud to me; but you must do what it tells you.”


1. Pick up the book that is on the floor and put it on the table.

2. Open my book at page 15. Put the pencil between the leaves of the book. Shut the book. And then say to me: “I have done what you asked.”

In the early stage of learning English, doing is the best test of understanding. At a later stags, saying may take the place of doing.

By a modified method this test may be constructed by using pictures for the answer. Showing the pupil a picture of a well-known story, the teacher says: Read this story to yourself.

(The story runs: ................)

Now show me in the picture, Who.........?

At a more advanced stage the tests are concerned with reading in its most mechanical aspect-the ability to pronounce isolated words quickly and correctly on seeing the printed symbols. The three aspects-speed, accuracy, and comprehension are equally important. For these three aspects an extract from prose readings may be used with really advanced students.

Speed of reading from a simple convenient index of attainment. But there are individual differences in rate of reading regardless of how well one knows the materials, so the rate should be timed properly. Whenever the pupil hesitates owing to the difficulty of some word, a pause of perhaps 5 seconds may be allowed and the need for prompting is reckoned an error. The time in seconds or minutes required to read the excerpt should be reckoned in advance, according to the rate of an “average” reader.

Accuracy and inaccuracy are indicated by the total number of mistakes in reading the passage. The teacher should never correct an error made by the pupil while testing, because by so doing the time of reading is prolonged.

Comprehension may be measured by the method of question-answering.


(1) Ask questions in English on well-known objects, places, persons, taking are to keep within the pupils’ vocabulary limits. The replies are to be written or answered orally in English.

(2) Display a large chart or picture before the class and make brief statements about it in English, which the pupils are to mark on their papers, as being true or false.

5. Pupil Self-Evaluation26

The ability to evaluate objectively one’s own work toward a goal is among some important abilities that the school can help young people to develop. It is most necessary for boys and girls to develop a sense of responsibility for their own progress. The teacher should indicate to them the bases of his appraisals. Unless the formulation of evaluation criteria and the exercise of evaluative judgment are thoroughly understood by boys and girls, the opportunity for growth in ability to evaluate their own work will be limited. We often hear boys and girls say: “Why did the leader give me a poor grade?” “What have I to do to get an average grade?” “What have I to do to get a good grade?” These kinds of questions show the fact that the students do not see the relationship between the objectives of the course and the day-by-day lessons and activities, or that they hold their teacher more responsible than themselves for their own work. Such cases should be remedied and students led to develop ability in self-evaluation and a sense of responsibility for their progress. Practically every student likes to feel that he is making progress or at least to know how far he has advanced. We might say that learning is usually accompanied by making some mistakes, and that one seldom has succeeded in a thing without experiencing trial and error. This applies equally to the student who is interested in learning a foreign language. One way of measuring progress in learning a language skill is for the student to see how rapidly he is overcoming difficulties. This often can be done by graphing or charting the number of difficulties, showing how they are lessened in numbers as they are gradually mastered. This should be done by the student himself, since it will help him to se how he is making progress and what needs. To be done further in order to improve.

The teacher should do all that he can to arrange the work in such a way as to reduce he number of possible errors. The following practical suggestion to the plan may give the teacher useful help in proof-reading and checking materials to show errors and difficulties, and help to overcome them.

A. An Editorial Committee

Able and conscientious pupils may in some circumstances take part in checking and scoring papers. These pupils are to constitute an editorial committee. The class (40 to 50 pupils) may be divided into a few groups, each being composed of about 20 pupils. An editorial committee consists of 6 to 8 leaders selected from each group. Each group has 2 leaders. With proper guidance from the teacher, each leader may be trained to assist handicapped pupils in correcting their own work or in explaining their difficulties.

B. Replacing the Teacher’s Score-book with Pupils’ Folders and an Achievement Chart

(1) Proof-reading and revising written work

The mistakes in papers may be corrected by the students in or outside of class.

In case of uncertainty concerning a mistake, the student may ask the teacher or consult a member of an editorial committee.

(2) Filling revised papers

All checked papers may be filed in a separate folder by each member of the class. The papers may be arranged in the order of the dates when they were written.

(3) The student’s own self-evaluation chart

Words corrected in written work may be counted and the kinds of difficulties recorded.

The progress is shown in the self-evaluation chart.

(4) Students might be encouraged to make periodic evaluation of their status along various lines and make comparisons of their progress in the form of graphs. The following “chart” is an example of evaluating both by using a 5-point scale on some factor, and a numerical counting of errors on others.

Content value

Form Value

Qualities of interest

Orderly telling of events

Choice of attractive details

Variety in sentence structure

Expressive vocabulary

Qualities of correctness

Accuracy in spelling

Accuracy in capitalization

Accuracy in punctuation

Accuracy in grammar



Poor Fair Average Good Excellent

More than 15 errors per

100 words……………………. 0

10-5 errors per

100 words……………………. 20

4-9 errors per

100 words……………………..30

1-3 errors per

100 words……………………. 40

0 errors per

100 words……………………. 50

 0  20  30  40  50

Add content value and form value

(Total possible score: 100 points)


6. Other Methods

A. Summarizing (Prcis)

In evaluating prcis writing of die pupil, the following three points should be kept in mind.

1. Does the pupil think accurately?

2. Does he express himself simply, clearly, and freely?

3. Does he use a few exact words?


(1) Summarize the following paragraph in about... words.

(There is no need of giving examples.)

(2) Read the following paragraph and select, from the sentences given below the paragraph, the one which most nearly expresses the main thought (Draw a circle around the number of that sentences).28

The earth is “getting smaller every day because we are able to go anywhere much faster than our fathers did. There is more need now than there ever was in the past for good Governments and for laws between nations. Some day there may be a Government of all the earth, but much a Government would be impossible if the citizens of each nation thought they were free to do exactly what they liked. In our school days it is not too early for us to learn to obey the laws of our nation, and to prepare for a time when every nation will have a part in this Government.

1. Most people are glad to travel faster than their fathers did.

2. The Government of the Nations today are better than they were in the past.

3. Young people should prepare to have a part in a Government of all the earth.

4. Every nation is perfectly free to do what it likes.

5. The citizens of a nation should be free to do what they like.

6. Today there are no laws between nations.

7. In our school days we have no power to make laws.

B. Paraphrasing

“Paraphrasing” means for pupils to explain the meaning of a passage in other, simpler, English words. This type is adaptable to measure the scope of vocabulary as well as the knowledge of the given words. Moreover, this makes pupils cultivate the habit of thinking in English which is particularly serviceable to Japanese students.


(1) Explain in other English words the following underlined Passage:

1We ca be but partially acquainted with the events which actually influence our course through life, and our final destiny. There are 2innumerable other events- 3 if such they may be called-which 4 come close upon us, yet pass away 5 without actual results or even betraying their near approach by the reflection of any light or shadow across our minds.






(2) Give work in English that mean the same as the following:

gradually ( )

in front of ( )

chamber ( )

all of a sudden ( )

inquire ( )

C. Translation

There are two ways of giving translation questions: (1) writing the general sense of a given passage and (2) translating the underlined part of a passage.

Translation into Japanese and vice versa.

(1) Put into English:

1. Anata wa haru to aki de dochira ga osuki desu ka.

2. Watakushi wa haru yori aki no h ga suki desu.

3. Mado o akete yorosh gozai masu ka.

4. Anata wa eigo o shitte imasu ka.

5. Dzo jibiki o kashite kudasai.

(2) Read the following and translate the underlined parts into Japanese:

The weak-willed youth who took no interest in politics and never read a newspaper had grown into a man of unbending determination (a) whose tireless energies were incessantly concentrated upon the laborious business of Government and the highest questions of state. He was busy from morning to night. In winter, before dawn, he was to be seen, seated at his writing table, working by the light of the green reading lamps which he had brought over from Germany and (b) the construction of which he had improved by and ingenious device.

(3) Read the following English sentences and then select the best of the several translations which are given:

He cared little for earthly fame and honors, and felt no pride in the vastness of his knowledge.

1. Kare wa konoyo no meisei ya homare o sara ni nozomazu sono hiroi chishiki o sukoshi mo hokori to shinakatta.

2. Kare wa konoyo de ymei ni naru koto o isasa ka osoreta, soshite jibun no chishiki no kkyosa ni hokori o uchikudakareta.

3. Kare wa hayaku kara meiyo no koto o sukoshi shimpai shita. Soshite jubun no chishiki ga hiroku homerarete iru to hisoka ni kanjita.

D. Correction

To examine whether the knowledge acquired by the pupils is right or not, this type of test is effective and easy to prepare, especially in grammar tests. This is adaptable to the measurement of accuracy of the knowledge acquired. In making this type of questions teachers should be careful. The errors in one sentence should not be too many.

(1) Rewrite the following sentences, correcting any errors:

1. Have you ever went to Nikko?

2. She told me that she likes it very good.

3. I am very much hungry, because I have walked hardly.

4. The older of the three children were married.

(2) Supply the necessary punctuation and capital letters in the following sentences: 29

“1. He cried out thomas are you there.

2. Having approached the field with the wind the pilot had to turn his ship about.

3. Are you tired or blue or worried or ill or just cross.

4. Dr. a j kennedy left for work in spain he was able to do so because he had studied spanish and history in college.

5. May I go to the library now asked joe.

6. He was given a birds eye view of the city from a height of twenty one thousand feet.

7. Its at radio city said the boy all of us saw it yesterday.”

E. Arrangement

In this test students make sentences using the given words or word-groups. Sometimes they are told to make one sentence by putting two or three short sentences together. To this test belong the conversion test, that is, reforming of mood, voice, or kinds of sentences.

This type of test can be adopted to measure the power of composition. In constructing this type of examination items, care must be taken that the words or word-groups given may be selected so as to make only one sentence.

The following word-groups, arranged in proper order, will make a complete sentence. Choose the numbers in the parentheses which designate the word-groups in a sentence which indicate the desirable order of the word-groups in the complete sentence:

1. (1) you borrow (2) you may do (3) but you ought not (4) what you like (5) in the books (6) to make marks (7) with your own books


2. (1) in coming all the way (2) on my departure (3) many thanks (4) to see me off (5) for your kindness


F. Dectation30

Dictation work is very helpful in evaluating skills in the spoken language.

Dictation can be done on material which has been read previously, but in an advanced class, materials that the pupil has not seen previously may be preferable. In dictating, the teacher may read the entire passage through first, and then sentence by sentence. The teacher may dictate the sentences at a uniform rate, and if they are long, dictate them phrase by phrase, repeating each phrase once, and once only. After the entire passage has been dictated, it is well to read it slowly without repetitions to allow students to make what corrections they can.

7. Advantages and Disadvantages of Types of Tests

A. The New-Type Test

The advantages and disadvantages of the new-type questions are listed as follows:


1. Extensive Sampling

2. Objectivity of Scoring

3. Economy of Time

4. Elimination of Bluffing

The new-type test affords an opportunity of sampling a pupil’s knowledge more widely than the old-type test. A test made up of a hundred or so items, if they are well-selected, will properly sample pupil achievement for many purposes. In the new-type test items the exercises are so stated that the answers are brief and, therefore, they are evaluated entirely independently of the personal judgment of the examiner.

The pupil’s answers are so brief and concise that the scoring of the exercises can be done very accurately and speedily, although it takes more time to prepare them.

In examining the translation, statement of grammar rule, or composition type, fluency of expression and mastery of the language are recognized ad factors, but the amount of writing done by the pupils in answering the new-type exercises is reduced to a minimum. This discourages bluffing by the pupil.


Examinations of new-type tests have possible disadvantages.

1. Possibility of guessing

2. Neglect of training in organization and expression of thought

There is a tendency for new-type tests being open to the danger of guessing and chance. They sometimes afford inadequate opportunity for the pupil to organize and express his thoughts.

The restricted number of alternatives in the new-type tests enables the pupil to achieve a higher score than is warranted by his true achievement. That is, in a test of one hundred items each presenting two choices, pupils could on the average make fifty correct responses by following advice of a tossed coin. For completion items the guessing factor is obviously negligible. Various statistical formulae have been offered to correct this chance factor. However, the problem of guessing cannot be entirely eliminated by such mechanically applied statistical corrections, since they are based either on theories of probability or on statistical studies of average effects33

The examples given of new-type tests are all relatively simple ones. The interested teachers, it is hoped, will consult the references given and will learn more about tests, and will continually strive to improve their use of them.

B. The Traditional or Old-Type Test34

The traditional or old-type examinations in foreign languages consist of translations to and from English and questions designed to test the vocabulary, rules of grammar, and the ability to use them.


The four major disadvantages of the old-type test are (1) the fact of limited sampling, (2) subjectivity of scoring, (3) distorting effect of the medium of expression on manifested achievement, and (4) labor required in scoring and grading.

A test of five or ten questions cannot hope to sample widely over a large field of subject matter. When 142 teachers scored identical copies of an English paper, the scores based on 100 percent for perfection ranged from a low of 50 to a high of 98. This shows in a practical way subjectivity of scoring.35

A new-type test can be graded more reliably or consistently than an old-type test. A new-type test paper will be given the same score no matter who grades it and no matter on how many different occasions it is graded by the same person. However, the old-type test-especially the translation test-would not be graded in the same way either by different people or by the same person at different times.36

The old-type test (translation test) measures ability in expression, breadth of vocabulary, and speed of writing. In this case the “halo” effect, the teacher's general impression, or his like or dislike of a pupil, is apt to come between the pupil’s achievement and the teacher’s evaluation of it.37

Another factor affecting the objectivity of scoring an essay test is the influence upon the teacher of handwriting and general neatness of the paper. Some teachers assign relatively higher marks to pupils who try but do poorly than to pupils who appear not to try but do well.38


The essay test may possess some advantage as a motivational device, as an instructional device for increasing ability to write essays, and as a device for getting at their ability directly.

We can use the new-type tests in many varied forms to evaluate many types of achievements, but there are limitations. The old-type or essay-type test still is useful; for example, it can be used to evaluate ability to write. The pupil's knowledge of sentence structure, punctuation, and spelling constitutes an essential tool in writing and may be evaluated by the new-type tests, but the only sufficient and complete indication of his ability to express himself in an organized fashion is the essay test. The pupil’s achievements which cannot be better evaluated by means of the new-type tests include writing essays, and assimilating, organizing, and evaluating large amounts of subject matter.

Teachers should constantly strive to improve both the construction and scoring of essay-type tests. Suggestions on how to make such improvements are not given here, since they are already given in sections or chapters of the following books by the Ministry of Education.

1. Handbook on In-Service Training of Teachers, 1948

2. Pupil Guidance in the Lower and Upper Secondary Schools, 1949

3. General Method of Teaching in the Upper and Lower Secondary schools, 1949

Such being the function of both the new and the old type tests, it is desirable for examiners to adopt either the new or the old type tests according to the outcome being evaluated in each case. Even the old-type tests should be employed if necessary.

The teacher must not only acquire familiarity with the different types of test items but also learn to make each form serve specific purposes in specific purposes in specific situations.

8. Use of Observations, Logs, Diaries, Autobiographies and Interviews

It has been realized that paper-and-pencil tests, that is, standard tests, teacher-made tests, and essay-type tests, measure only a portion of the results in the accomplishment of all of these aims. These instruments are very valuable if used properly, but they have weak points in that they do not measure completely the entire growth and development of the individual. The tests in the past measured the acquisition of knowledge and abilities. Higher institutions of education selected their students on the basis of the grades given in the secondary schools. Suppose we want to evaluate the accomplishment of the ability to understand spoken English, the ability to speak, or the appreciation of literature. It is obvious that we cannot do this only with a paper-and-pencil test. One method of evaluating the ability to speak would be to hear the pupil speak in a number of different situations such as informal conversations, floor talks, speeches, class discussions, and others. One way of evaluating a developing appreciation of literature would be to hear the pupil interpret a poem in class with feeling or to check the books he has voluntarily read. Other systems of evaluation would be Observations, Interviews Logs, Diaries, and Autobiographics.39 Only a very brief description of each of these methods is given here. It is suggested that English language teachers study the detailed treatment of these methods given in the professional book Pupil Guidance in the Lower and Upper Secondary Schools by the Ministry of Education, 1949, and adapt the techniques suggested therein to the English language program.

A. Observations

The best evaluation technique for some purposes would be observation of the pupil in the classroom, in his club, on the playground and out of the school. Observation as an evaluation instrument is most valuable if several observations by different teachers can be gathered over a considerable period of time. The teacher must start with art objective attitude, and observe the pupil to discover whether the aims of the English language course are being accomplished. The teacher should be very conscientious in using this instrument.

B. Logs

The pupil log is a written record of the pupil’s activities kept by himself for a short period of time. He writes all, or some, as the case may be, of his activities both at home and at school. From this record the teacher can find out the pupil’s interests, attitudes, abilities, and the development made concerning them. It is very valuable not only for the teacher but also for the pupil himself.

C. Diaries

Diaries will help the teacher evaluate attitudes and interests which may be utilized in the teaching program.

D. Autobiographies

The autobiography also reveals interests, abilities, and aptitudes of the pupils.

E. Interviews

The interview is a friendly conference with the pupil. It cannot succeed if there is no mutual confidence between the teacher and the pupil. It may be used for guidance, for evaluation, or for finding out interests and abilities. The teacher should keep a correct record of the interview.

V Scoring or Keeping a Record

1. Aims of Scoring or Keeping a Record

Records ate very important not only to the teacher but to the pupil and to parents and employers. It is needless to say that records should be accurate, comprehensive, easily available and show correctly the progress of the pupil over a considerable period of time, and that records are absolutely necessary if the program of the English language course is to succeed.

Some of the important aims for scoring or keeping a record are outlined below:

A. To continue guidance for development of pupils.

B. To help pupils appraise their word.

C. To report pupils’ progress to parents.

D. To supply data on a basic report for a pupil transferring from one school to another, going to a university, or getting a job.

A report of a pupil’s class work should be so planned as to present information that will contribute to the continuance of his growth. So far as the progress of the pupil is concerned, his record should be compared with his own past records and his own capacities. It is generally better for him to compete against his own record than to compete against other pupils. The point is that each pupil should be helped to develop according to his own individual interests, needs, and capacities.

The present achievements and the rate of progress in English made by the pupil should be reported in detail to the parents. The teacher should also make suggestions that will help the pupil improve in the future.

There must also be records because of the necessity of selection act the 9th grade and the 12th grade levels, but they should be much broader than merely the results of paper and pencil tests in English.

2. Contents and Instruments of Scoring

In the English language course there are five major aims:

A. Ability to understand spoken English.

B. Ability and habit to speak effectively in different social situations.

C. Ability to read with comprehension.

D. Ability to express oneself in writing.

E. To understand and appreciate the culture and literature of the English-speaking peoples.

As evaluation is based directly on the aims, the primary purpose of scoring is to measure, in the case of each pupil, the degree to which the five aims have been achieved, and to identify why they were not achieved so satisfactorily as desired.

3. Marking Systems40,41

A. Percentage System

The chief objections to the percentage system are that it is apt to become an end in itself, as are all marking systems, and that it does not indicate activities accurately or identify the weaknesses or strengths in the learning process. For instance, a mark of 80% in English does not mean that he is equally good in all of the skill and abilities involved in using English effectively. Literally a grade of 80% might be taken to mean that the pupil is 80% effective in hearing, 80% effective in speaking, 80% effective in reading, 80% effective in writing, and has acquired an 80% understanding of the culture of English-speaking peoples. Obviously the mark of 80% in this case really means little. Percentage can be legitimately used only when based upon an actual known quantity. Therefore it is impossible to mark the growth and development of the pupil, who is the developing organism. Desirable learning activities or outcomes cannot be marked by per cents or numbers of any kind as they are not mathematical quantities. Abilities of understanding and speaking English or appreciation of culture and literature cannot possibly be indicated except through accurate written descriptions of progress.

However, the percentage system is very useful and significant in the case of expressing the raw score of the objective test.

B. Letter System

The use of the letter system appeared partly to alleviate the evils of the percentage system, but cannot wholly succeed, as the letter system is not related to true learning outcomes.

It has to a less extent the same major defect of the percentage system pointed out above. For instance, if a grade of C is given in English, indicating average accomplishment, such a grade could literally be interpreted to mean that the pupil was average in hearing, speaking, reading, and writing the English language, and average in his understanding and appreciation of the culture and literature of English-speaking peoples. However, such a pupil is very likely to have been above average in one or more of the language skills, and below average in one or more of them. The one mark could not reveal to parents, employers, or the pupil himself the exact nature of his accomplishments and failures. If the letter marks are used at all, several marks should be used for each subject, corresponding to the major aims. In other words, in English a separate mark should be given for each of the five major aims of English given above and it is unwise to attempt to average these five marks, because the average mark which results will not be meaningful.

4. Conclusion42,43

Every effort should be made to develop descriptions to go with the letter marks. To have a good marking system the letter must be carefully defined in terms of evidences of the learning product being marked. Provision must be made for compiling and using extensive, detailed data which are, as far as human judgment can determine, reliable evidences of possession or lack of the learning product under consideration. A mark should rest upon an extensive body of data gathered by the teacher from many various sources and over a period of time. It is believed that the best place for recording periodical evaluation of pupil progress is in the cumulative record.

Reports should be in terms of pupils’ own capacity and growth and not in terms of rank in class or competition. The following three factors can be recognized and kept distinct:

A. The native ability of the pupil

B. The present achievement of the pupil

C. The growth of the pupil in achievement and his rate of progress

Reports should show clearly that judgments are in terms of the ability of the pupil, or the average of the group, or the previous record of the pupil, or some other standard.

There is no separate cumulative record or English language or any other subject. The cumulative record contains blank spaces for recording data concerning progress in English according to five major aims. For details concerning the cumulative record, see Pupil Guidance in the Lower and Upper Secondary Schools, Mombush, 1949.

1 See N. L. Bossing, Progressive Methods of Teaching in Secondary Schools, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1942, Chapt. xx

2 See R.D. Cole, Modern Foreign Languages and Their Teaching, Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., New York, 1937. pp. 385-386

3 H.A. Greene, A. N. Jorgensen, and J.R. Gerberich, Measurement and Evaluation in the Secondary School, Longmans, Green and Company, New York, 1943, p. 646. Quoted by permission of the publishers.

4 Ibid. p. 644. Quoted by permission of the publishers.

5 Ibid. p. 642. Quoted by permission of the publishers.

6 C. C. Gullette, L. C. Keating, and C. P. Viens, Teaching A Modern Language, Appleton-Century-Crofts Inc., New York, 1946, pp. 81-83. Quoted by permission of the publishers.

7 See H. A. Greene, A. N. Jorgensen, and J. R. Gerberich, Measurement and Evaluation in the Secondary School, Longmans, Green and Co., New York, 1943. Chapter V, pp. 91-93, Norms are the levels of achievement which typical pupils actually attain.

8 Ibid., p. 16 Quoted by permission of the publishers.

9 V.A.C. Hemmon, Achievement Tests in Modern Foreign Languages, Publications of the American and Canadian Committees on Modern Languages, Volume V, American Council of Education, Washington, 1929. Quoted by permission of the publishers.

10 See H. H. Remmers and N.L. Gaze, Educational Measurement and Evaluation, Harper & Brothers, New York, 1943, p. 141

11 See H. A. Greene, A.N. Jorgensen, and, J. R. Gerberich, Measurement and Evaluation in the Secondary School, Longmans, Green and Co., New York, 1943. p.626

12 Ibid. p. 16. Quoted by permission of the publishers.

13 T. L. Keeley, G.M. Ruch, and L. M. Terman, Stanford Achievement Test, Reading, Advanced Battery, World Book Co., 1940. Quoted by permission of the publishers.

14 M. E. Haggerty and L.C. Haggerty, Haggerty Reading Examination, Sigma 3. World Book Co., 1920. Quoted by permissions of the publishers.

15 See H. H. Remmers and N.L. Gaze, Educational Measurement and Evaluation, Harper & Brothers, New York, 1943, pp. 167-168

16 See A. E. Traxler, Traxler Silent Reading Test, Grades 7 to 10, Public School Publishing Co., 1939

17 H. S. Canby, J. B. Opdycke, and M. Gillum, Applying Good English, Macmillan Co., New York, 1944, p. 104. Quoted by permission of the publishers.

18 See H. A. Greene, A. N. Jorgensen, and J. R. Gerberich, Measurement and Evaluation in the Secondary School, Longmans, Geen & Co., New York, 1943, pp. 182-184

19. H. E. Hawkes, E. F. Lindquist, and C. R. Mann, The Construction and Use of Achievement Examinations, Statement Rules and Matching and Correction, Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, 1936, p.412. Quoted by permission of the publishers.

20. See H. A. Greene, A. N. Jorgensen and J. R. Gerberich, Measurement and Evaluation in the Secondary School, Longmans, Green & Co., New York, 1943, pp. 188-190.

21 See Mombush, pupil Guidance in the lower and Upper Secondary Schools, 1949, Appendix C

22 See Mombush, Handbook on Student Selection, 1948

23. C. H. Handschin, Modern-Language Teaching, World Book Company, New York, 1940, p. 132. Quoted by permission of the publishers.

24 C. H. Handschin, Modern-Language Teaching, World Book Co., New York, 1940, pp. 112-113. Quoted by permission of the publishers.

25 See C. Burt, Mental and Scholastic Tests, Staple Press Limited, London, pp. 297-313

26 See W.V. Kaulfers, Ph.D. Modern Languages for Modern Schools, McCraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, 1942, Chapt. XIII

27 A. I. Johnson and A. L. McCregor, English for Your World, Ginn and Company, Boston, 1944, p. 16. Quoted by permission of the publishers.

28 Tsuda University, The Entrance Examination, 1949

29 H. S. Candy, J. B. Opdycke, and M. Gillum, Applying Good English, Macmillan Co., New York, 1944, pp. 380-381. Quoted by permission of the publishers.

30 See C. H. Handschin, Modern-Language Teaching, World Book Co., New York, 1940, p. 129-130

31 See H. A. Greene, A. N. Jorgensen, and J. R. Gerberich, Measurement and Evaluation in the Secondary School, Longmans, Green & Co., New York, 1943, pp. 150-155

32 See Ibid, pp. 133-142

33 See H. H. Remmers and N. L. Gage, Educational Measurement and Evaluation, Harper & Brothers, New York, 1943 Chap. VIII

34 See Ibid, pp. 133-142

35 See D. Starch, and E. C. Elliot, Reliability of Grading High School Work in English, School Review, September, 1912

36 See H. H. Remmers and N. L. Gage, Educational Measurement and Evaluation, Harper & Brothers, New York, 1943 Chap. VIII and Chap. XII

37 See H. H. Remmers and N. L. Gage, Educational Measurement and Evaluation, Harper & Brothers, New York, 1943 Chap. VIII(pp. 136-137)

38 See H. A. Greene, A. N. Jorgensen, and J. R., Gerberich, Measurement and Evaluation in the Secondary School, Longman, Green and Co., New York, 1946, Chap. VII. Pp. 133-139

39 See Mombush, Administration of New Lower and Upper Secondary Schools, 1949

40 See W. H. Burton, Guidance of Learning Activities, Chap, 19, D. Apple-ton-Century Company, New York, 1944

41 See Mombush, General Methods of Teaching in the Upper and Lower Secondary Schools, 1949

42 See W. H. Burton, The Guidance of Learning Activities, Chap. 19, D. Appleton-Century Company, New York, 1944

43 See Chapter 14, Pupil Guidance in the Lower and Upper Secondary Schools, Mombush, 1949.