CHAPTER V

SUGGESTED PROGRAM FOR THE UPPER

SECONDARY SCHOOL

1. Pupil Experiences in Grade 10

A. Chiefly Oral

( ) Describing Objects, Pictures, Maps, Charts, and Actions Orally

a. Explanation

See under this heading in the previous grades, in which two items in the 7th and one item in the 8th grade are omitted.

Integrate this learning experience more and more with other types of learning activities. For example, when putting on a play of any kind, actions that can be described without unreasonable effort could be described orally. The pupils might also give simple descriptions of what they have seen after having come in social contact with people.

b. Sample Description of Actions in a Play

A looked very sad when he entered the room. B, on the other hand was looking very happy. C looked a little nervous, I think. D came in running with a suitcase. There was lot of life in the play. The stage setting was pretty good. Only, it was a little dark. Etc.

( ) Asking and Answering Questions

a. Explanation

In grades 7, 8, and 9 the programs provide for practice in the use and recognition of the anomalous finites, the Wh- questions, answers involving the use of such expressions as I think, I believe, those in which adjectives and adverbs are used in manners specified, and practice in reacting to statements.

In the 10th grade systematic practice in such basic conventional conversation should be continued unless sufficient proficiency has already been obtained. If a fair amount of proficiency has been obtained, practice may be continued and concentrated on successions of questions and answers involving rapid transfer from one grammatical form to another. This may be based on a text as in the case of the first of the following examples. The pupils may also be taught to ask questions through technique shown in the second example.

Concentrated practice may also be given in forms involving dependent clauses using if, when, etc.

b. Samples

1. Systematized question-and-answer work on a given text:-

The pupil is assumed to have been introduced to the following text: gColumbus had only one ship left, and even this one was very old and rotten. With this last remaining ship he was able to return to Spain.h

Questions@based@on@the@text:

2. Pupils' question practice:

The teacher sets answers to which the pupils can find suitable questions, and in this case the teacher need not put his answers in complete sentences:

Examples@OF@Answers Required@Questions
On@the@desk. Where@is@the@book?
To@the@station. Where@did@you@go@yesterday?
I@went@there. Who@went@to@the@station@yesterday?

3. Systematized question-and-answer work involving dependent clauses:-

(a) What are you going to do if it rains tomorrow?

(b) What do you take when you go on a picnic?

( ) Learning Oral Composition

See under this heading in the 7th, 8th, and 9th grade programs and under "Describing Objects, Pictur1es, Maps, Charts, and Actions Orally" in the 10th grade program.

All oral expressions, except those that constitute repetition or reproduction of prepared matter; involves oral composition. Since the pupils' aim is to learn English as "speech", the techniques used should be such as to discourage habitual mental translation from the vernacular.

Whatever the matter introduced, whether the use of the so-called subjunctive or the passive voice, oral composition should precede acquaintance with similar matter in reading or writing.

( ) Making Announcements Including Items of a Program

See under this heading in the 8th grade program.

The following additional occasions, are given by way of suggestion:

A radio program,

A special assembly,

A visit by a prominent person.

The occasions given by way of implication in the 8th grade program are:

A baseball match,

A national holiday,

An English program,

A musical program.

( ) Carrying On Class Conversation (Conventional Conversation)

See under this heading in the 7th grade program for a definition of the term Conventional Conversation by Harold E. Palmer.

See also under the heading gAsking and Answering Questionsh in the 7th, 8th, 9th, and 10th grade programs.

The pupils should be provided practice in this type of oral work (1) so that they may not lose what they have learnt in the previous grades and (2) so that they may become more proficient in the skill.

( ) Carrying On Conversations Based on Text, One Pupil with Another

See gExplanation" under this heading in the 7th grade program and Sample 1 under the heading ''Asking and Answering Questions" in the 10th grade program.

The technique suggested is (1) for the teacher to talk about the subject of the text himself or to re-tell the story in his own words, (2) for the teacher to ask and answer questions based on the text, (3) to drill the pupils along the patterns provided by the teacher, and finally (4) to get the pupils to ask and answer questions under the teacherfs supervision.

The standard and type of English would be determined by the text.

( ) Carrying On Conversation Apart from Text

See under this heading in the 7th grade program.

The first of these activities mentioned, that is, learning English through actions, does not appear in the 9th and 10th grade Program.

( ) Singing Songs

a. Explanation

See the explanation given under the heading entitled gSinging Simple Songs Accompanied with Memorizing and Reciting Simple poems" in the 7th grade program.

b. List of Songs

The following songs are suggested as suitable for the 10th grade:

How Can I Leave Thee! (Kcken)

Massafs in de Cold, Cold Ground (Foster)

The Blue Bells of Scotland (Scottish air)

Greeting (Mendelssohn)

Song of the Volga Boatmen (Russian folk song)

( ) Memorizing and Reciting Poems or Given Texts

a. Explanation

See under this heading in the 9th grade program.

It is suggested that a list of poems, texts, and proverbs suitable for memorization and recitation be compiled by teachers.

Choral speaking, properly handled, should serve to cause the pupils to catch the feel of English and therefore be instrumental in promoting lively expression. In very case, the teacher must have an appreciation for the matter handled. Also, no matter should be forced upon the pupils for which they show no appreciation.

b. List of Poems

A committee or a group of teachers might compile a list for their own use.

( ) Listening to Phonograph Records

See under this heading in the 7th grade program.

It is suggested that occasions be provided for listening to records of popular songs which tile pupils have learnt or are about to learn.

( ) Listening to the Radio

See under this heading in the programs for grades 7, 8, and 9.

The pupils of 10th grade level should be able to benefit more from listening to radio English lessons than lower secondary school pupils, so that they should be encouraged to make full use of such programs.

( ) Engaging in School Broadcasts

See under this heading in the 8th grade program.

Reciting of poems and given texts, presenting of radio plays, and delivering short speeches are things that could be added to this field.

( ) Listening to Talkies

See under this heading in the 9th grade program.

( ) Dramatizing Stories, Including Dialogues

See under this heading in the 8th and 9th grade programs.

In the 10th grade the teacher and the pupils can together engage in the rewording or rewriting of stories, and so derive extra benefit of engaging in composition work involving the art of paraphrasing.

( ) Performing Puppet Plays

See under this heading in the 8th add 9th grade programs and under "Dramatizing Stories, Including Dialogues" in the 9th and 10th grade programs.

( ) Putting On a Kamishibai

See under this heading in the.9h grade grogram.

( ) Putting On a Program for Another Class, School, and Parents

The principles mentioned under the same heading for the 7th grade apply to all grades. See also under ''Memorizing and Reciting Poems and Given Texts", "Dramatizing Stories, Including Dialogues", "Performing Puppet Plays", and ŸŸgPutting On a Kamishibai" in the 10th grade and below.

( ) Conversing On the Telephone

See under this heading in the 7th, 8th, and 9th grade programs.

There is a universal Japanese tendency to listen to a conversation over the telephone from beginning to end and on realizing that the matter can be better understood or answered by someone else to hand the receiver to the someone else without conveying any of the message received. The speaker in such cases is obliged to repeat the entire conversation word for word in reply to the request: "Kawarimashita kara dōzo." To make things worse, this second listener may in turn hand over the receiver in the same manner to a third person, which would necessitate covering the same field on the part of the speaker for the third time. This is not only time-consuming but very unbusinesslike and irritating. Consequently, a listener should remember the points of the message, note them down if necessary, and convey them to the person to whom he may hand the receiver, or else ask at the outset what the speaker's business might be. Certain unbusinesslike Japanese customs may be vestiges of feudal days, which have caused people to keep unduly aloof from other people's business and to evade responsibility.

Not only should practice in conversing over the telephone be continued but attention should be paid to proper courtesy and businesslike habits.

( ) Giving and Taking Directions

a. Explanation

See under this heading in the 7th, 8th, and 9th grade programs.

A beginning may be made in the giving and taking of directions in which three people are involved. This is an excellent learning activity in that it provides life-like opportunities for pupils to ask as well as to answers questions or directions.1

b. Samples

A: B, please ask C to lend me his knife.

B: C, please lend A your knife.

C: With pleasure.

A: B, will you please ask C if this is her hat?

B: C, is this your hat?

C: Let me see. Yes, it is.

A: B, would you mind asking C to open the window?

B: Would you mind opening the window, C?

C: Not at all.

A: B, please ask C if he is coming to school tomorrow.

B: C, are you coming to school tomorrow?

C: Yes, I am.

( ) Inviting and Visiting English-Speaking People

See under this heading in the 9th grade program.

( ) Having an English-Speaking Party

The pupils might start having English-speaking parties of their own or, if this is too ambitious, they might join grades 11 and 12 when they have a party.

Because of the very nature of such parties, it would be highly advisable to exclude the use of Japanese as a medium of full communication. To keep such parties worth while from a pedagogical point of view, there should be one or two leaders proficient in English. Games, such as those mentioned at the end of the program for each grade, should be of great value in providing amusement, while games not listed, such as checkers, chess, or playing cards could be taught in English and played without resort to Japanese. If tea or cakes are served at any time, an excellent opportunity is offered for teaching what to say and how to behave on such an occasion.

( ) Telling Stories and Anecdotes from Reading

The stories and anecdotes may be those found in the textbook or in side-readings. After having read and digested a story a pupil may be asked to tell it to a group of pupils or to a whole class. If it is too much to expect a pupil to tell a story by himself, a number of pupils may be asked to tell it, one pupil telling one part of a story and another telling another part, and so forth. Team work offers an excellent experience in co-operation and may work as an incentive to do well. It will also make the experience less monotonous for the listeners.

The pupil may be asked to stand in front of his classmates or be seated among a group forming a circle.

( ) Making Short Prepared Speeches

See under this heading in the 9the grade program.

( ) Having Debates

a. Explanation

The word debate, for which there is no satisfactory Japanese equivalent, stands for a discussion in which arguments are set forth for and against a point by two opposing groups. In a formal debate judges are appointed to decide the number of points won by each side by adjudging the validity of arguments put forth. But it is not necessary to have judges if the contestants wish to do without them. Instead, they can have an audience vote on which side has won.

Since one may have arguments for as well as against a point it is not necessary nor practicable to divide into two equal groups according to one's propensities.

A debate is excellent for the following reasons:

(1) The excitement causes a contestant to get over his self-consciousness, an excellent thing in language learning.

(2) It acts as an excellent means to speak so as to convince.

(3) It serves as a means to practice good manners in speaking.

(4) It serves as a means to practice tolerance, to understand and appreciate an opponent's point of view.

Each team should make thorough preparations by listing their arguments, taking into full consideration what the opposing team might say, and apportion to each speaker the arguments which he should present. If a team is too big the debate will take up too much time and excitement will dwindle, so that it would be advisable to have not more than half a dozen speakers on each side. The procedure, in principle, is to have the captains start, then the second speakers, then the third, and so on, so that the teams might take turns speaker by speaker. An important thing is to have the captains tell the audience what the argument is about and also not to let any speaker do all the talking. Time limit could be set, and this would add to the excitement.

The subject for debate should be very simple, especially in the beginning stage.

c. A suggested order of speakers in a debate is given here.

It will be assumed that there are 3 speakers on each side.

1st Affirmative speaker

3 minutes

1st Negative speaker

3 h

2nd Affirmative speaker

3 h

2nd Negative speaker

3 h

3rd Affirmative speaker

3 h

3rd Negative speaker

3 h

Negative rebuttal

(3rd speaker)

2 minutes

Affirmative rebuttal

(3rd speaker)

2 h

Negative rebuttal

(2nd speaker)

2 h

Affirmative rebuttal

(2nd speaker)

2 h

Negative rebuttal

(1st speaker)

2 h

Affirmative rebuttal

(1st speaker)

2 h

Total speaking time

30 minutes

( ) Holding a Pupil Discussion

a. Explanation

Discussions will have to be of the simplest kind, since from the point of language learning they provide opportunities for practice rather than for learning. The themes should be so easy that the pupils will be able to speak with the least number of errors and in reasonably idiomatic English. Such activities require the constant guidance and surveillance of an able teacher. Otherwise, they will offer the best opportunities for practicing bad English. At no time should the students be left to themselves.

A few errors here and there are inevitable, but these should be tabbed and corrections made later. Corrections on the spot in an activity of the kind will generally be a most disturbing and discouraging factor.

In the early stage the teacher himself can do all or nearly all of the leading to ensure that practice of a desired kind is obtained. A discussion need not even go by its own name, but be introduced as and integrated with practice in question-answering.

b. Sample

 

Note: Guide the conversation so as to make it possible to introduce questions requiring the giving of opinions, reasons, or explanations. Awkward silences are bound to occur, but too many of these is a sure sign that the matter is too difficult and that the teacher should bring the activity to a close and turn to something easier.

B. Chiefly Reading

( ) Reading from the Textbook

See under this heading in the 7th, 8th, and 9th grade programs.

There is great danger of resorting to the old translation method in the 10th grade and up. This should be carefully guarded against by following principles stated under this heading in the programs for the preceding grades.

( ) Reading Aloud in Unison and Individually

See under this heading in the 7th grade program.

This learning activity should be engaged in sparingly and with the greatest care, full attention being always given to its purpose.

( ) Reading Parts Spoken by Characters in a Story

See under this heading in the 8th grade program.

The participants in this learning activity may be chosen according to the quality of their voices. If some of the parts are read in chorus, it will go toward producing effective contrasts.

( ) Engaging in Silent Reading

See under this heading in the 8th grade program.

To prevent silent reading from becoming silent plodding or silent analysis, build reading readiness (1) by making use of the pupilsf interests and curiosity, (2) by providing strong motives for reading, (3) by building up a background of understanding, (4) and by familiarizing the pupils with the meanings of new words and idioms.

( ) Finding Facts in Reading Material to Fit Answers to Questions

See under this heading in the 8th and 9th grade programs.

This learning activity may also be useful when writing reports or summaries, which are experiences in writing introduced in the 10th grade.

( ) Reading for Information in General

See under this heading in the 9th grade program

( ) Using Tables of Contents, Indexes, ad Glossaries

See under this heading in the 8h and 9th grade programs.

( ) Using the Dictionary

See under this heading in the 8th and 9th grade programs.

In the 10th grade the pupils should be made fully proficient in the use of the dictionary. To the skills already stated for the 8th and 9th grades may be added (1) practical acquaintance with all abbreviations used in a dictionary, (2) ability to make use of proper syllabication in written work and printed matter, and (3) ful1 acquaintance with the values of phonetic symbols and diacritics marking accents.

( ) Using Encyclopedias and Other Reference Books

See under this heading in the 9th grade program.

( ) Reading for Pleasure

See under this heading in the 8th and 9th grade programs.

More might be done in this field than in the previous grades.

( ) Reading Newspapers and Weeklies

See under this heading in the 7th, 8th, and 9th grade programs.

English newspapers and weeklies specially prepared for pupils, and suitable for 10th grade level, might be brought into the classroom or, in the absence of such material, suitable passages might be selected from ordinary newspapers and weeklies. For this purpose a committee might be formed.

( ) Reading Books and Magazines

See under the heading, '' Reading Newspapers and Weeklies ".

( ) Keeping an English Scrapbook

See under this heading in the 7th grade program.

The activity can be carried on with materials of 10th grade level. The pupils may be taught to classify the materials collected according to types so that they may be easily available when needed.

( ) Reading Essays

a. Explanation

Of all the literary types the essay is probably the most direct medium of written expression. The informal, as opposed to the formal, essay in particular is the least hampered by literary conventions such as characterize the fiction, poetry, or the drama. In the early days of the essay in the 16th century, jottings of a few lines often comprised an essay. The informal essay is an "attempt" to express in writing some personal reaction to some item, event, or experience. Because of its highly personal and human quality it is probably the best literary medium for coming in touch with the author himself. For this reason the informal essay is the readiest literary means of getting to know a Britisher or an American. The formal essay is written in an objective manner, follows some logical pattern, and is informational, so that it lacks the spontaneity and personal touch which are found in the informal essay.

It is important for the teacher to be acquainted with these facts so that he may (1) know the nature of what he is teaching,(2) adjudge how much time he should devote to the essay in proportion to time spent on other types of literature, and (3) understand shy he is teaching the essay.

In the 10th grade very little can be done in the way of reading the masters, since practically all essays of literary merit are written for the English-speaking adult and are therefore unsuited in style, vocabulary, and allusions to those learning English as a foreign language who are only beginning to read the essay. Even A. A. Milne requires careful handling. Consequently, in the absence of simplified materials, small portions will have to be selected and treated with the utmost care. No list, therefore, will be given of authors or works here, but only a list of kinds of essays according to one type of classification.

b. Kinds of Essays (from informal to formal)

Essays of impression

Personal essays

Character essays

Descriptive essays

Essays of appreciation

Essays of judgment

Critical essays

Scientific essays

Philosophical essays

( ) Reading Biographies

a. Explanation

See under this heading in the 8th grade program.

In the 10th grade the pupils should be better able to use the dictionary and other reference materials, but the technique of the oral introduction should be continued, though perhaps to a less extent, the extent depending on the specific objectives of a particular course.

The activity may be followed by a reports.

b. Sample Report

1. Author, Title

2. Authorfs nationality; year of birth (and death)

3. Summary of matter read

4. Reaction

( ) Reading Short Stories and Fiction

The principle of giving "a thorough oral preparation by the teacher" mentioned under the heading "Reading Biographies" in the 8th grade programs still applies to the 10th grade, but the extent of its necessity will probably be less in proportion to other means of preparation acquired since the 8th grade. However, some teachers may, for pedagogical reasons, need to devote much time to oral preparation.

In the 10th grade no selection should be so long as to destroy the pupilfs interest, so that short essays, portions of essays, articles, portions of fiction, and the like having the elements of a story may be introduced.

At no time should matter of undue difficulty be taught. The law of properly grading linguistic materials is just as important in the 10th as in the 7th grade, though the problems from a pedagogical standpoint may not be the same.

( ) Reading Plays and Drama

See under this heading in the 8th grade program.

( ) Reading Poetry

See under this heading in the 9th grade program.

Greater appreciation may be fostered by a study of the life of the poet, especially in relation to the poem, since understanding is fundamental to effective learning.

( ) Building a Classroom and School Library

See under this heading in the 7th, 8th, and 9th grade programs.

Unless already installed, it would be an excellent idea to start a responsible body for this activity elected from among the pupils with a competent person acting as advisor.

( ) Finding Books and Other Things in a Library

See under this heading in the 8th grade program.

The pupils should be made thoroughly proficient in this skill in the 10th grade.

C. Chiefly Writing

( ) Taking Dictation

The principles mentioned under the same heading in the 7th grade program apply to the 10th grade. As in the 9th grade the pupil might be asked to insert the necessary or desirable punctuation marks.

The first parts of sentences may be given and the pupil asked to complete them. This will give variety to the activity. Some authorities believe in teaching the pupil to take everything down in phonetic symbols.2

( ) Writing Answers to Oral and Written Questions

a. Explanation

See under this heading in the 7th and 9th grade programs.

Variety may be added to this learning activity by handing out mimeographed sheets on which there are a choice of answers to questions in the manner of the multiple-choice test.3 By requiring the pupils to check the correct reply among a choice of answers by listening to questions put orally, the pupils will derive the added benefit of learning to listen attentively besides that of learning to read and to write. A time limit might be set for an activity of this kind by allowing a certain amount of time for each checking.

 

b. Illustration

( ) Writing from Memory, with and without Tips

See under this heading in the 7th grade program.

The pupils may be asked to reproduce briefly in writing the substance of what they have heard or read. This should provide a beginning in the writing of reports and summaries.

( ) Filling In Blanks Asking for Information

See under this heading in the 9th grade program.

( ) Describing Objects, Pictures, Maps, Charts, and Actions in Writing

See under this heading in the 8th and 9th grade programs.Also see under "Describing Objects, Pictures, Maps, Charts, and Actions Orally "in the 10th grade program.

( ) Learning to Spell, Orally and in Writing

See under gPlaying Suitable Word and Other Games" at the end of the 8th and 9th grade programs.

The pupils should be consistent in their style of spelling. They should not, for instance, use British style of spelling in one place and American in another. No more should they use one kind of British spelling in one place and another kind in another; nor should they do this in the case of American spelling. For instance, grey and gray, -ise and -ize, or connection and connexion in British style of spelling, and through and thru in American style are examples of the case in question.

Mixing of styles of spelling does not matter from a purely utilitarian point of view, but social nicety makes consistency highly desirable.

( ) Learning to Use Punctuation Marks and Capitals Correctly

a. Explanation

See under this heading in the 8th and 9th grade programs.

The pupils must be consistent in their style of punctuation and capitalization just as they should be in keeping to one type of spelling. A few examples are given below of cases in which two styles of punctuation are possible without differences in the meaning.

DSamples
 

( ) Learning to Use Abbreviations Correctly

See under this heading in the 8th and 9th grade programs.

Add to the list of abbreviations new examples as needs arise. Also, all abbreviations necessary to an effective use of a dictionary should be learned.

( ) Learning to Keep a Reasonable Margin and to Observe Similar Conventional Practices

See under this heading in the 8th and 9th grade programs.

By the end of the 10th grade the pupils should have acquired a complete mastery of conventional social practices necessary to neatness.

( ) Making Signs for Use in School

See under this hading in the 8th grade program.

( ) Writing Labels and Tags

See under this heading in the 9th grade program.

( ) Composing Notices for the Bulletin Board

See under this heading in the 8th grade program.

( ) Learning Written Composition

See under this heading in the 7th grade program.

Add all the other learning activities in writing English introduced in the 10th grade.

( ) Keeping a Diary

See under this heading in the 8th grade program.

( ) Writing Letters

a. Explanation

See under this heading in the 8th and 9th grade programs.

A beginning might be made in the writing of short business letters. It is neither necessary nor advisable to resort to commercial jargon. It is best to use plain, straightforward English.

 

( ) Contributing English Articles to the School Newspaper or Magazine

See under this heading in the 9th grade program.

( ) Publishing an English Newspaper

See under "Contributing English Articles to the School Newspaper or Magazine" in the 9th grade program, where much of the technique mentioned would apply.

Study an English language newspaper and adopt those features that are feasible. A number of classes could work together in getting up a newspaper. The activity should serve as a valuable stimulus in the pupilsf written work.

( ) Writing Reports

a. Explanation

Reports may be on things the pupils (1) have seen, (2) have heard of, or (3) both.

Since the writing of reports means engaging in "free" composition, the activity is not without dangers.

In case of reporting on what the pupils have seen, these may be on a visit to an exhibition, a film, a trip, etc. In the case of reporting on what the pupils have heard, these may be on the result of an interview, an oratorical contest, etc., where it would be necessary to take notes. In case of reporting on what the pupils have seen and heard, which would be true in most cases, these may be on seeing a drama, a puppet play, a kamishibai, on attending a musical program, and on visits of various kinds.

In the first stage the reporting can be on something the teacher does that is intended for the purpose. Whatever is done must be easy enough to prevent practice of a wrong kind.

b. Sample Notes for a Report

On Seeing a Statue-

A man of about forty. Standing in the corner of a park.

Faces east. Made of brass. Wears Western clothes. Etc.

( ) Writing a Summary or Prcis

a. Explanation

A summary or prcis may (1) consist of extracts of the more important parts of a matter parts of a matter reworded here and there so as to form a reasonably connected readable whole; (2) be a re-written or recomposed shortened account of what is contained in a longer matter, little regard being given to the style or tone of the original; or (3) be a completely re-composed matter with an attempt to reproduce as much as possible of what is contained in the original together with the tone which the style of the original carries.

In the first instance there is little paraphrasing to be done, if any, and although such summaries are not of a high order, they may be the only kind a beginner in the art can attempt. The second type of summary mentioned above differs from the first in the greater amount of re-writing entailed and in including some of the less important elements. Because of the attempt to say more within about equal space as in the first type of summary, greater effort and skill is required in the proportionately greater economy of words. The third type is very difficult even for those to whom English is the vernacular, and is beyond the reach of practically all secondary school pupils, if not of many teachers.

The activity may be attempted by the class as a whole or by groups, if greater benefit could be derived than through individual work.

A number of techniques are given below, of which some are already familiar to the pupils.

b. Sample Techniques

(a) Combining two sentences in one-

The man, returned to the same spot. He decided to take the road running east.

Returning to the same spot, the man decided to take the road running east.

(b) Changing clauses into phrases-

As I was not interested in the idea, I decided not to join the group.

Being not interested in the idea, I decided not to join the group.

(c) Changing into phrases dependent clauses whose subject is different from that of the main sentence-

If weather permits, we hope to leave next Monday.

Weather permitting; we hope to leave next Monday.

(d) Expressing more concisely qualifying and other elements that can be so treated-

The girl who has a loud voice was talking without a momentfs pause.

The loud-voiced girl was talking incessantly.4

(e) Substituting one or two-word equivalents for round-about phrases-

in@a@perfunctory@manner
or
perfunctorily
of@a@courageous@characterr
V
brave
of@a@slippery@nature
V
slippery
of@a@various@kinds or sorts
V
various,@different
in@many@cases, in few cases
V
often,@seldom
in@many@instances, in few instances
V
often,@seldom
on@many@occasions, on few occasions
V
often,@seldom
with@ regard to, in reference to
V
about,@concerning
the@reason@why.....is@ because5
V
because
having@regard@to@the@fact@that
V
as
in@spite@of@the@fact@that
V
although
in@regard@to
V
in
on@the@supposition@that
V
if
in@the@event @of
V
if
for@the@purpose of, with a view to
V
to
on@a@commercial@basis
V
commercially
to@a@considerable@extent
V
considerably6

 

( ) Translating from Japanese into English

See under this heading in the 7th and 8th grade programs.

D. Playing Suitable Word and Other Games

Synonyms and Antonyms Game-

The teacher writes out a list of common words on the blackboard and asks the pupils to supply a synonym for each. The class may work as a whole, individually, or by groups. Also, a time limit may be set, and the use of a dictionary may or may not be allowed. Instead of writing words on the blackboard, the teacher may prepare mimeographed copies.

Definition Game-

The leader addresses himself to one of the group by saying some word in English. The one addressed must define it in English before the leader counts to twenty, or be counted out of the game.

Habitual use of an English-English dictionary with easy definitions, such as those specially prepared for Japanese students should go toward success in this game.

Analogy Game-

This game follows the mathematical formula: A: B:: C : X. For instance, Father: Mother:: Brother:Sister. Those scoring the greatest number of correct answers may be regarded as winners, or the order may be from the one securing the greatest number of correct answers down to the one securing the least number of correct answers.

The following list is suggestive:

Bird: Nest::Bee: ______________________________________

Fingers: Hands:: Toes: ______________________________________

Lead: Pencil:: Ink: ______________________________________

Foot: Shoe:: Hand: ______________________________________

Man: House:: Dog: ______________________________________

Stove: Winter:: Fan: ______________________________________

Daughter: Mother:: Son: ______________________________________

Baseball: Bat:: Tennis Ball: ______________________________________

Bicycle tire: Air:: Balloon: ______________________________________

Pencil: Paper:: Chalk: ______________________________________

Coat: Body:: Hat: ______________________________________

Cuff: Wrist:: Collar: ______________________________________

Umbrella: Rain:: Parasol: ______________________________________

Solid Foods: Plates:: Drinks: ______________________________________

1 For further examples see J.Owen Gauntlett, Practical Speech, Vols. I and II, Daigaku Shorin, Tokyo, Copyright, 1952

2 See E. V. Gatenby, English as a Foreign Language, Longmans, Green & Co., London, New York, Toronto, 1944, p. 46

3 See chapter on Evaluation

4 Samples (a) to (d) taken from Edward Gauntlettt, Practical English, Vol.I, Daigaku Shorin, Tokyo, 1949, p.78 et seq.

5 gthe reasoncis becauseh is pointed out by some authorities as incorrect. The correct form is regarded as being, gthe reasoncis that ch because the that clause when made the subject reads, gThatcis the reasonh, while, gBecausec is the reason,h does not make a sentence.

6 R.W. Jepson, English Exercises for School Certificate, Edward Arnold & Co.,London, Copyright, 1935, 1947, p.8. A few of the phrases may be beyond the 10th grade level, but they are included by way of example. The italics are colorless words such round-about phrases often contain.

2. Pupil Experiences in Grade 11

A. Chiefly Oral

( ) Describing Objects, Pictures, Maps, Charts, and Actions Orally

Build on the experiences obtained in the 7th, 8th, 9th, and 10th grades, providing variety or adding to the difficulty according to the pupils needs.

( ) Asking and Answering Questions

See under this heading in the 7th, 8th, 9th, and 10th grade programs, and provide experiences of 11th grade level.

( ) Learning Oral Composition

See under this heading in the programs for previous grades.

Oral composition should be continued to prevent skills previously acquired from deteriorating as well as to add to the proficiency.

( ) Carrying On Conversations Based on Text, One Pupil with Another

See under this heading in the programs for previous grades, particularly the 10th grade.

( ) Carrying On Convention Apart from Text

See under this heading in the programs for previous grades, and also under "Having a Club Meeting."

( ) Singing Songs

a. Explanation

See the explanation given under the heading entitled "Singing Simple Songs Accompanied with Memorizing and Reciting Simple Poems" in the 7th grade program.

b. List of Songs

The following songs are suggested as suitable for the 11th grade:

The Last Rose of Summer (Flotow)

Cradle Song (Mozart)

The Loreley (Heine-Silcher) (English translation)

Caro mio ben (Far golden Moon) (G. Giordani)

Old Folks at Home (Foster)

( ) Memorizing and Reciting Poems or Given Texts

a. Explanation

See under this heading in the 10th grade program.

b. List of Poems

A committee or a group of teachers might work out a list for their own use.

( ) Listening to Phonograph Records

See under this heading in the 7th grade program.

A few literary masterpieces, if available, could be studied with profit.

( ) Listening to the Radio

See under this heading in the programs for previous grades.

Every opportunity should be utilized for training in listening to good English.

( ) Engaging in school Broadcasts

See under his heading in the 10 grade program.

( ) Listening to Talkies

See under this heading in the 9th grade program.

If there is a good historical novel or play on the screen, maximum benefit could be derived through a preliminary study of the times, the literary background, and above all the English. News reels may be of interest, but preparation for such films may be a problem, as such films tend to move from place to place quickly.

( ) Dramatizing Stories, Including Dialogues

See under this heading in the programs for previous grades.

More may be done in the 11th grade in the experience of re-writing because of a better knowledge of English. Paraphrasing, with an object in view, should prove much more interesting and fruitful than learning to paraphrase with no definite aim in view except that of language study.

As many pupils as possible should derive benefit through this learning experience. This can be done by getting some to engage in stage management, some others to help in preparing the costumes, and still others to help in publicizing a play.

( ) Performing Puppet Plays

See under this heading in the 8th grade program, and under gDramatizing Stories, Including Dialoguesh in the 8th, 9th, and 10th grade programs.

( ) Putting On a Kamishibai

See under this heading in the 9th grade program.

( ) Putting On a Program for Another Class, School, and Parents

See under this heading in the programs for previous grades, and also under hSinging Songsh, gMemorizing and Reciting Poems or Given Textsh, gDramatizing Stories, Including Dialoguesh, gperforming Puppet Playsh, and gputting On a Kamishibaih in the 10th grade program.

( ) Conversing on the Telephone

See under this heading in the programs for previous grades.

( ) Conducting an Interview

a. Explanation

This is a very valuable experience in that an interviewer needs to do more than just talk. He must (1) introduce himself in a pleasant manner, behaving in a perfectly natural way, (2) speak distinctly, tactfully, and in a pleasing voice, (3) show interest in the person being interviewed and in what he may have to say, and (4) remember and note the main points of the information gathered and jot them down.

It may be advisable for two or three to interview a person, so that the chief interviewer may not be troubled with the task of having to take notes himself, an act which tends to interrupt a meeting. Also, preparation should be made beforehand, so that the interviewers may know what to ask and what to do, although no interview will turn out exactly in the way anticipated. It is best to take down as few notes as possible, as many people tend to dislike having what they say put down on paper. The polite thing to do would be to ask if one may take notes. On returning to the classroom or school the interviewers should write out what they have heard so that the matter makes interesting reading. This should provide valuable practice in composition. With the understanding of the person interviewed, the matter can be published in the school paper or magazine.

The following are some polite expressions that might be used:

 

b. Sample of Useful Expressions

( ) Inviting and Visiting English-Speaking People

a. Explanation

See under this heading in the 9th grade program.

b. Suggested Topics

(a) Popular magazines

(b) Books and authors

(c) Places of interest

(d) Industries

(e) Lighting system

(f) Stamp collecting

(g) Trade

( ) Having an English-Speaking Party

See under this heading in the 10th grade program.

A party should be kept from getting rigid or stereotyped, since it is the very element of fun that helps the pupils learn while enjoying themselves. There is a general tendency in our country to take things a little too seriously, and to treat even recreation as a kind of taskmaster. Needless to say, there is the other danger of doing things with little planning and little discipline.

( ) Telling Stories and Anecdotes from Reading

See under this heading in the 10th grade program.

( ) Telling Jokes from Reading

To tell jokes in a foreign language is a very difficult thing. There are plenty of jokes and funny stories in Japanese literature, and this might be a good place to start from. A pupil can get practice in saying in English things he can readily understand and appreciate in his own language and life.

( ) Making Short Prepared Speeches

a. Explanation

See under this heading in the 9th grade program.

The speeches may be a little longer than those attempted in the previous grades. Informal contests may be held, too, with competent judges presiding.

b. Suggested Topics

(a) How to Make Good Use of a Library

(b) Books of Value in the Study of English

(c) Value of Games in Learning English

(d) What One Learns from Sports

(e) How I Spend My Evenings

( ) Telling Original Stories

The pupils should be encouraged to tell even the simplest stories. They can tell the class of anything of interest that they have seen, experienced, or heard of. Unless pupils are asked to be ready for some such activity, there is ample danger of a dead silence. For this reason, it may be advisable to ask the pupils to announce a little beforehand what they intend to talk about. Any "free" activity resulting in "free" silence and "free" inactivity in the teaching of foreign language is a bitter experience a many inexperienced teachers.

( ) Having Debates

See under this heading in the 10th grade program.

Add appropriate topics to the list.

( ) Holding a pupil Discussion

See under this heading in the 10th grade program.

( ) Holding a Parliamentary Meeting

a. Explanation

The holding of parliamentary meetings is an excellent means of training in a very important phase of democracy. It is excellent because in parliamentary procedure rules of order and manner of procedure complement each other in a democratic way. In a meeting conducted in an undemocratic way some of the people are apt to dominate the meeting. Rules of order are provided in order to prevent such undemocratic practices and to steer a meeting along democratic lines.

Neither teacher nor pupil need be frightened at the idea of holding a parliamentary meeting. They can begin by adopting certain basic practices, and these are not difficult to learn.

b. List of Expressions

(a) The meeting is called to order. (Said by the chairman.)

(b) Mr Chairman (Madam Chairman), I move that...

(c) I second the motion. (The motion is then open to discussion.)

(d) Is there any discussion? (Said by the chairman.)

(e) Those in favor, please respond by saying, eAye.f Those opposed, please respond by saying, eNo.f (Said by the chairman.)

(f) The motion is carried (is lost). (Said by the chairman.)

(g) The meeting is adjourned. (Said by the chairman.)

Note: The writing of a constitution, the taking and reading of minutes, etc., are activities that can wait till the pupils have got a little practice in the easier things.

( ) Having a Club Meeting

A club meeting is generally conducted according to parliamentary procedure in a manner such as is described in the previous section.

A club meeting, however, may be quite informal, as has been the case with English-speaking society or club meetings witnessed in Japanese schools. The main object of an English-speaking club is to provide extra opportunities for practice in speaking English, so that almost any form of practice activity could be introduced that would contribute to proficiency in speaking. These activities could be brought up, discussed, and listed at a meeting, and be subsequently put into practice.

Pupils particularly interested in oral expression might form a club of their own, with membership open to all who are interested. Those interested in reading or writing might form another club. However, in order to prevent cliques from developing, it may be advisable to have groups of different kinds with different interests belong to one organization. There are any number of interesting and useful activities that might be engaged in, beginning with games and outings and going on to activities involving serious study.

B. Chiefly Reading

( ) Reading from the Textbook

See under his heading in the programs for previous grades.

If the printed page is treated as matter for reading only, very meager results may be expected. If, however, all sorts of activities, both oral and written, are introduced (1) preliminary to, (2) during, and (3) following the reading, very much can be expected, not only in the field of reading but in other fields of practical English. In the 11th grade, for instance, the pupils might be asked to write a summary of what they have read, not to mention dozens of other activities that could be introduced. Grammar, too, could be well based on the textbook or any other matter studied, and this is an infinitely better way than the dividing of English into separate compartments, which is a method without scientific basis.

( ) Reading Aloud. in Unison and Individually

Reading aloud is of great value in acquiring an appreciation for rhythm in English. With increase in the introduction of matter with modern literary style there arises a need for an understanding of the rhythm of both prose and poetry classed among the literary heritages of the English language. Need for such training is justified by the fact that rhythm forms an important part of English literary style. In fact, in the case of some renowned authors their works are sometimes read simply for the pleasure derived from their rhythmic style. In poetry Swinburne is certainly one whose words could not be appreciated without an appreciation of his poetic rhythm. Among prose writers Macaulay and Pater are often read simply for their style. Among more recent poets is Vachel Lindsay, whose works depend for their effect to an unusual degree on rhythm.

If phonograph records of masterly reading of literary selections are available, they will be of much value as aids to teaching this aspect of English.

( ) Reading Parts Spoken by Characters in a Story

See under this heading in the-8th and 10th grade programs.

There is always danger of losing some of the skills pupils have previously acquired. If skills acquired in this field were worth while, there would be every reason why practice in it should be continued.

( ) Engaging in Silent Reading

With increases in ability to read silently there arises a need for more provision in this field. Encouragement and help should be given for reading outside of class and, when possible, pupils might read matter in any of the forms of literature in which they are interested, such as poetry, the essay, drama, etc., as part of their English course. There are some biographies that are short enough, such as those Lytton Strachey. The point is that the pupils should be given practice in reading of a kind in which they can engage by making use of their knowledge and skills acquired up to date. If there is little matter that is easy enough for this purpose, there are scientifically prepared simplified texts that are available.1

See also under this heading in programs for grades 8 to 10.

( ) Finding Facts in Reading Material to Fit Answers to Questions

See under this heading in the programs for grades 8 to 10.

( ) Reading for Information in General

See under this heading in the 9th grade program.

Add to the techniques listed in the 9th grade program that of (1) a guided discussion of matter read and (2) writing a summary of matter read.

( ) Using Encyclopedias and Other reference Books

See under this, heading in the 9th grade program.

( ) Reading for Pleasure

See under this heading in the programs for grades 8 to 10.

Provide scientifically prepared simplified texts as suggested under the heading gEngaging in Silent Reading.h

( ) Reading Newspapers and Weeklies

See under this heading in the programs for previous grades.

( ) Reading Books and Magazines

a. Explanation

See under the heading, gReading Newspapers and Weeklies.h

See also under the heading gWriting Book Reviews.h which is an activity that goes with the reading of books and magazines.

A big chart of the kind suggested below might encourage reading.

b. Sample Chart

Title of Book or Selection Read

Group A Group B Group C Group D
         
         
         
         
         
         
         

Note: The entering of the number of those who have read the books or selections could be done by the effective Japanese method of writing the character , one stroke at a time or by the Western way of writing, which comes to the same thing.

A separate chart could be prepared for magazine articles read.

( ) Keeping an English Scrapbook

See under this heading in the programs for previous grades.

( ) Reading Essays

See under this heading in the 10th grade program.

( ) Reading Biographies

See under this heading in the programs for grades 8 to 10.

Biographies may offer good material for dramatization.

( ) Reading Short Stories and Fiction

See under this Heading in the programs for grades 8 to 10.

( ) Reading Plays and Drama

See under this heading in the 8th grade program.

If literary masterpieces are introduced in the 11th grade, they should provide bases for studies arising from the scenes, the times, the characters, and the situations which the plays represent. This may have been done in the previous grades to a certain extent, but much more could be done in the 11th grade. But care should be taken to see that the teaching of English is not neglected.

( ) Reading Poetry

See under this heading in the programs for previous grades.

As in the case of reading plays and drama more of the background might be given. A certain amount of elementary knowledge of Romanticism, Pre-Raphaelitism, Classicism, etc. might be provided if this would lead to a better appreciation of a poem studied. Much discretion is needed, however, since, unless well-handled, literary appreciation can be killed rather than kindled.

C. Chiefly Writing

( ) Taking Dictation

See under this heading in the programs for previous grades.

( ) Writing Answers to Oral and Written Questions

See under this heading in the programs for previous grades.

( ) Writing from Memory, with and without Tips

See under this heading in the 7th and 10th grade programs.

( ) Filling In Blanks Asking For Information

a. Explanation

See under this heading in the 9th grade program.

Filling in of receipts, application forms, and printed forms asking for information of various kinds may be provided.

b. Samples

(a) Receipt

(a) Receipt

ijApplication@Form

( ) Describing Objects, Pictures, Maps, Charts, and Actions in Writing

a. Explanation

See under this heading in the programs for grades 8 to 10.

This experience should be integrated more and more with other types of experience.

Strive for clearness of description and smoothness of style. Read descriptive portions of essays and other literature and study the methods used. Childrenfs encyclopedias should prove invaluable in this respect.

b. Describe in writing

(a) how to fly a kite

(b) how to make a paper doll

(c) how to prepare sandwiches

(d) how to bake a cake

(e) stage management

(f) a foreign-style house

etc.

( ) Learning to Spell, Orally and in Writing

See under this heading in the programs for previous grades.

As the pupils progress in their ability to spell correctly, note words that are misspelled and concentrate on these words. This will contribute much toward economy in effort.

( ) Learning to Use Punctuation Marks and Capitals Correctly

a. Explanation

See under this heading in the programs for grades 8 to 10.

Provide exercises of a more advanced nature.

 

b. Sample Exercises

( ) Learning to Use Abbreviations Correctly

See under this heading in the programs for previous grades.

( ) Composing Notices for the Bulletin Board

a. Explanation

See under this heading in the 8th grade program.

To the type of activity engaged in in previous grades may be added the composing of notices involving more advanced knowledge and skill. Along with the putting up of one or two sentences, it may be advisable or necessary at times to put up those with greater detail, such as the nature and object of a meeting.

b. Sample

The monthly meeting of the English-speaking Society will be held at 4 ofclock in the school auditorium. Mr. Morita is expected to give a short talk on methods of improving our society. Members are free to offer any suggestions of their own after he talk. All those interested are invited to attend.

( ) Learning Written Composition

a. Explanation

For principles see under this heading in the 7th grade program.

Add all the other learning activities in writing English introduced in the 11th grade.

A method of analyzing sentences functionally, introduced by Edward Gauntlett in a book now out of print is illustrated below, as it has proved of value by those using the method in teaching, especially in the use of students slow in grasping the functional organization of sentences. The technique is of much value also in improving ability to read matter containing involved sentences.

b. Illustration

Enclose noun clauses in brackets containing single strokes, since the word noun is a one-syllable word. Enclose adverb clauses in brackets containing two strokes, since the word adverb is a two-syllable word. Enclose adjective clauses in brackets containing three strokes, since the word adjective is a three-Syllable word. Be careful to distinguish between clauses and phrases.

I realized (that the book was far more difficult) <than I had expected.>

He told me (that <while he was in Germany> he visited many lovely places.)

Coming to a road running between Aono and Iida, the men decided to take a little rest. (No clause.)

This is a book [I have read three times.]

He tells me (the man [you referred to] is out of town.)

Note: Sentences with relative pronouns missing are tricky.

( ) Keeping a Diary

See under this heading in the 8th grade program.

( ) Writing Letters

See under this heading in the programs for grades 8 to 10.

( ) Writing Telegrams

a. Explanation

Maximum economy of words compatible with clarity in meaning is the main requisite in writing telegrams. Articles are therefore omitted as well as everything else that is not really essential to the conveyance of meaning.

b. Sample

( ) Contributing English Articles to the School Newspaper or Magazine

See under this heading in the 9th.gr.ade program.

The 11th and 12th grades could take a lead in an activity of this kind. There should, however, be no attempt to dominate the activities of the lower grades. If leadership is taken it is with the sole purpose of learning democratic leadership and not domination. In fact, the older pupils can learn to be helpful, generous, and understanding, and to have the lower grades fully represented in case an inter-grade committee is formed.

( ) Publishing an English Newspaper

See under this heading in the 10th grade program and also under the heading, '' Contributing English Articles to the School Newspaper or Magazine," in the 9th and 10th grade programs.

( ) Writing Reports

See under this heading in the 10th grade program.

( ) Writing Book Reviews

a. Explanation

The term book review in this course of study includes literary reviews on articles, essays, poems, stories, etc. There are various forms for this purpose, of which a few samples are given below. If a book review were to become a burden to the pupils, that might easily create a distaste for out-of-class reading. Consequently, something simple should be attempted, and any form found to be deficient in some point should be changed and improved. If the writing of book reviews were to discourage reading, the matter would require immediate consideration in regard to its handling, since everything should be done to encourage this important activity.

b. Sample Forms.

@

( ) Writing Original Stories

a. Explanation

There is a certain similarity between writing news items and writing a story of some incident or experience. In both cases references would be made to what, who, when, where how, etc. Consequently a little experience in writing news items for the school paper should prove a foundation on which experience in story writing could be built. The main difference, however, would lie in the fact that while in writing news the attitude should be objective, in writing stories it should be subjective.

The story can be only a paragraph or two in length, and anything of interest, real or imaginary, could be the source of inspiration.

Style, not in the strict literary sense but as regards the English, can be studied and improved by varying the types of sentences. Samples are given below of dull and lively style.

b. Samples

Dull@style

Lively@style

( ) Writing a Summary or Prcis

a. Explanation

See under this heading in the 10th grade program.

In writing a summary one of the techniques is to underline the salient points before embarking on the writing. This process should be of help when writing a prcis, too.

Although the writing of a prcis a very difficult thing, it is excellent as an exercise and, if attempted by a group working together, should not be beyond the reach of 11th or 12th graders. A prcis in the secondary school need not be of a high literary order. The use of a number of dictionaries, Roget's Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases, lists of structural patterns, etc. can be brought into full play, and the effort in the attempt and the criticisms of the results should prove highly valuable. Much discussion can go along with the activity, and this in itself is worth while.

Both the summary and the prcis become necessary in actual life when limitations of space or the nature of a written matter call for a shortening of the matter to be published or recorded.

b. Sample Prcis

Full text-

And at last his patience was rewarded. It was a fine dry night; there was frost in the air; the streets were clean; the lamps, unshaken by any wind, were making a regular pattern of light and shadow. By ten o'clock, when the shops were closed, the side-street was very lonely and, in spite of the low noise of London from all round, very silent. Small sounds were carried far; sounds out of the houses could be clearly heard on either side of the roadway; and the sound of the approach of anybody came long before he appeared. Mr. Utterson had been some minutes in his waiting place, when he was aware of an odd, light footstep coming near. In the course of his nightly walks, he had long grown accustomed to the strange effect with which the footsteps of a single person, while he is still a long way off, suddenly spring out distinct from the vast mass of noises of the city. Yet his attention had never before been so sharply and distinctly attracted; and it was with a strong idea that he was going to be successful that he stepped back into the entrance to the court.3

Prcis of text-

Finally, on a fine, quiet, frosty night in a lonely, lamp-lit, clean London side-street, round ten o'clock, Mr. Utterson reaped his reward. Tiny sounds, in and outside of houses, could be heard long before anybody appeared. Mr. Utterson, in his waiting-place, could through long experience, single out a person's footsteps from among the multitude of noises; but never before so alerted, he stepped back with a strong feeling of success.

( ) Translating from Japanese into English

For principles and some techniques see under this heading in the 7th and 9th grade programs.

The pupils might be given short exercises in which the teacher gives out something orally or in written form in the vernacular to be translated into English, also orally or in writing. The translations should carry the approximate meanings of the original. They should certainly not be literal renderings that tend to be unidiomatic and Japanesey. It is much more important that the English should be good than that literalness be gained. It is a common fallacy to believe that what is expressed in one language can be reproduced word by word, phrase by phrase, or clause by clause in another language. Such a process would result more often than not in fallacious representations of a language, because language behavior is different from language to language. In fact, some words or phrases are best represented in a translation by being omitted altogether, while some things unsaid but understood in one language would have to be expressly stated in another in order to give a fair representation. It must be stressed that good translations into English are possible only when, and to the extent to which, English has been mastered.

Translation work tends, as a matter of fact, to encourage thinking in the language from which one is translating, and to discourage free idiomatic expression in English. This is an experience common even to master translators who may know English like a native. In the case of English-Japanese translation the effort to put into Japanese what is expressed in English tends to make one think of English in terms of Japanese "equivalents ". It is for this reason, among others, that the old translation method produces ''good" translators using unidiomatic English, and unidiomatic Japanese.

D. Playing Suitable Word and Other Games

Comparison Game:-

This is a development of a game-like learning experience in which pairs of nouns standing for things giving characteristics common to both members of a pair as well as points of differences are presented. The pupils are required to state the similarities as well as the differences. Turned into a game, the activity requires that a time limit be set within which a pupil must give a reply.

Suppose there was a pair of nouns, pen and pencil. The leader would ask, ''In what ways are pens and pencils simi1ar (different)"? The answer would be something like, "They are both used for purposes of writing." "They are different in that a pen requires ink, while a pencil requires none." It would be too much to ask for both a point of similarity and that of difference at one time.

The game is not very easy, so that it may be advisable to have the pupils do this activity in the form of written exercises.

A short list is given by way of suggestion:

chair,bench

table,desk

book,pamphlet

street,path

bus,street-car

stone,rock

water,milk

finger,toe

Word-Making and Word-Taking:-

(a) Cut cardboards into equal squares, about one inch square, and write on each card a letter of the English alphabet in block capitals.

(b) The number of cards needed will depend on the number of participants and on the duration of the game, but for general purposes five or six hundred should be enough.

(c) Have more cards for the commoner letters, such as E (which is, as a matter of fact, the commonest), and fewer cards for such letters as Z, X, Q.

(d) Spread the cards upside-down, and have one person turn up a card at a time and place it in the middle of the table so that everybody can see it.

(e) If it is felt that there are enough cards turned up to make a word no more should be added.

(f) Proper names and foreign words are not allowed. Also, it is customary to set a limit to the minimum number of letters allowed in making a word, beginning with one or two and going on to three or four. That is, if three were the limit for the minimum, two-letter words would not be allowed. Handicap may be given to a less experienced player by allowing him to take words with fewer letters than agreed upon.

(g) Suppose the following letters are turned face up:

B A K Z N.

It is possible to call out and to take the following words of three or more letters:

BAN, BANK, NAB.

(h) When a player calls out and takes a word, he arranges the cards in front of him, and keeps on adding words as he takes new ones.

(i) A player may add letters, such as S or ED, to any word he has taken in order to prevent his opponents from making use of these letters, but he cannot in this manner take the words taken by any opponent. For instance, he may take an S and turn WRITE into WRITES, or BOY into BOYS, or take a D or ED and turn PLEASE into PLEASED, or HUNT into HUNTED.

(j) A player may add letters to any word taken by another person, change it and take it. For instance, the word BAN could be taken by the addition of a K: BANK. LOW could be changed into BLOW or SLOW. PAY could be changed into PRAY, SPRAY, or PLAY. A player may add letters to words taken by himself in the same manner in order to prevent others from making use of cards. In every case all the letters in a word already taken must be preserved when changing it into another word.

(k) Final score may be taken by counting the number of letters used by the players, the one using the greatest number ranking first.

View of an imaginary table:

1 The gSimplified Englishh Series, Kaitakusha, Tokyo Longmans Simplified English Series, Longmans, Green & Co. Ltd., 6 & 7 Clifford Street, London, W.1

2 Dudley Bateman, Style in English Composition, Macmillan & Co., Ltd., St. Martinfs Street,London, Copyright, 1938. pp. 9-10

3 Harold E. Palmer, ''Simplified Version", R.L. Stevenson, The Strange Case of Dr.Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Institute for Research in Language Teaching, Tokyo, 1947, pp. 31-33

 

 

 

3. Pupil Experiences in Grade 12

A. Chiefly Oral

( ) Describing Objects, Pictures, Maps, Charts, and Actions Orally

Build on the experiences obtained in the previous grades, providing variety or adding to the difficulty according to the pupils' needs.

The activity might be extended to simulated experiences in shopping in which both salesman and customer give descriptions of things they want to sell or buy.

( ) Asking and Answering Questions

See under this heading in the programs for previous grades, and provide experiences of 12th grade level.

The activity might be extended to simulated experiences in interviews. One might act as a representative of a firm, school, or some other organization selecting employees from among a number of candidates. The questions can be on the personal history of a candidate, which is the usual thing, to which might be added questions regarding his hobbies, abilities, and interests. For a suggestion of the kinds of questions that might be posed see under the heading, "Filling In Blanks Asking for Information," in the 9th grade program, where a sample form for a personal history is given.

The interview might start with, "What is your name?" and this would be followed by questions based on the other items listed in the sample outline of a personal history already referred to.

A secretary might be provided to write down the answers to questions.

( ) Learning Oral Composition

See under this heading in the programs for previous grades.

( ) Carrying On Conversations Based on Text, One Pupil with Another

See under this heading in the programs for the previous grades, particularly the 10th grade.

( ) Carrying On Conversation Apart from Text

See under this heading in the programs for previous grades.

( ) Singing Songs

a. Explanation

See the explanation given under the heading entitled gSinging Simple Songs Accompanied with Memorizing and Reciting Simple Poems" in the 7th grade program.

( ) Memorizing and Reciting Poems or Given Texts

a. Explanation

See under this heading in the 10th grade program.

b. List of Poems

A committee or a group of teachers might work out a list for their own use.

( ) Listening to Phonograph Records

See under this heading in the 7th grade program.

A few literary masterpieces, if available, could be studied with profit.

( ) Listening to the Radio

See under this heading in the programs for previous grades.

( ) Engaging in School Broadcasts

See under this heading in the programs for previous grades.

( ) Listening to Talkies

See under this heading in the programs for previous grades.

Pupils in the 12th grade should be able to appreciate talkies the most of all, and this asset should be made use of to the full.

( ) Dramatizing Stories, Including Dialogues

See under this heading in the programs for previous grades.

( ) Performing Puppet Plays

See under this heading in the 8th grade program, and under "Dramatizing Stories, Including Dialogues" in the 8th, 9th, and 10th grade programs.

( ) Putting On a Program for Another Class, School and Parents

See under this heading in the programs for previous grades, and also under "Singing Songs", "Memorizing and Reciting Poems or Given Textsh, "Dramatizing Stories, Including Dialogues ", "Performing Puppet Plays", and "Putting On a Kamishibai" in the 10th grade program.

( ) Conducting an Interview

See under this heading in the 11th grade program.

( ) Inviting and Visiting English-Speaking People

a. Explanation

See under this heading in the 9th and 11th grade programs. Many of the topics listed may be of interest to 12th grade pupils. The following, however, might be added to the list.

b. Suggested Topics

(a) Western music

(b) Greek and Roman myths

(c) Scandinavian and other myths

(d) current events

(e) history of government

(f) English language

Its structure

Its history

etc.

Note: It is a common mistake to think that an English-speaking person would naturally know much about the music of his own country or the grammar of his own language. One interested in music would know something about it and one engaged in teaching should know something about the characteristics of his own language. As regards language, it is often scholars whose vernacular is not the language in question that know a great deal about it. However, it is to an educated person to whom the language we wish to know about is the vernacular that one would go for information in regard to the very life of the language, such as the delicate shades of meaning and the little differences which different locutions carry.

The 12th grade is an appropriate stage for checking up on some of the things one has learned.

( ) Having an English-Speaking Party

See under this heading in the 10th and 11th grade programs.

( ) Telling Stories and Anecdotes from Reading

See under this heading in the 10th grade program.

( ) Telling Jokes from Reading

See under this heading in the 11th grade program.

( ) Making Short Prepared Speeches

a. Explanation

See under this heading in-the 9th and 11th grade programs.

b. Suggested Topics

(a) What We Can Do to Beautify Our School

(b) What I Have Learned about English and American Poetry

(c) What I Learn through Reading an Essay

(d) English as a World Language

(e) Foreign Words Found in Japanese

(f) Some Things I Have Learned about American and British Culture

( ) Telling Original Stories

See under this heading in the 11th grade program.

( ) Having Debates

See under this heading in the 10th grade program.

Add appropriate topics to the list.

( ) Holding a Pupil Discussion

See under this heading in the 10th grade program.

( ) Holding a Parliamentary Meeting

See under this heading in the 11th grade program.

( ) Having a Club Meeting

See under this heading in the 11th grade program.

B. Chiefly Reading

( ) Reading from the Textbook

See under this heading in the programs for previous grades.

At no stage of learning should the pupils be introduced to reading matter for which they are not prepared. It needs to be reiterated that reading is a skill and not a science. At no time are mental gymnastics justifiable.

( ) Reading Aloud in Unison and Individually

See under this heading in the 7th and 11th grade programs.

( ) Reading Parts Spoken by Characters in a Story

See under this heading in the 8th, 10th, and 11th grade programs.

( ) Engaging in Silent Reading

See under this heading in the 8th, 10th and 11th grade programs.

Particular, reference is made to the advisability of laying special emphasis on outside reading of the type mentioned in the 11th grade program. Ability to read independently and with reasonable skill is the final goal in the silent reading program, and this can be done only by paving the way for and providing such experiences, -not by lectures on how to do it.

( ) Finding Facts in Reading Material to Fit Answers to Questions

See under this heading in the programs for grades 8 to 10.

( ) Reading for Information in General

See under this heading in the 9th and 11th grade programs.

( ) Using Encyclopedias and Other Reference Books

See under this heading in the 9th grade program.

The pupils should be taught, as needs arise, to use reference books of various types, such as the Thesaurus, handbooks on literature, or those on manners and customs.

( ) Reading for Pleasure

See under this heading in the programs for grades 8 to 10.

More and more time should be spent on this type of experience.

( ) Reading Newspapers and Weeklies

See under this heading in the programs for grades 7 to 10.

In the 12th grade some time might be devoted to a more serious study of current topics.

( ) Reading Books and Magazines

See under the heading, "Reading Newspapers and Magazines," especially in the 11th grade program.

( ) Keeping an English Scrapbook

See under this heading in the programs for grades 7 to 10.

( ) Reading Essays

See under this heading in the 10th Wade program.

12th grade pupils should be ready to read a few of the masters. Care should be taken to avoid authors with eccentric or unusual style, because pupils readily follow such a style as a model for both oral and written work, or to regard the unusual as the normal.

( ) Reading Biographies

See under this heading in the programs for grades 8 to 10.

What has been said about the essay in the 12th grade applies to the biography. There is much danger of introducing things that are too difficult at the sacrifice of good teaching and effective learning. Teaching of standard works must, in the secondary school, be always conditioned by the criterion of teaching English as speech, and this fact needs to be reiterated in the 12th just as much as in the 7th grade.

( ) Reading Short Stories and Fiction

See under this heading in the programs for grades 8 to 10.

Increase in practical knowledge of English should make it possible to lay greater emphasis on the content aspect of the short story or fiction, such as the study of the characters or the social background. This is of much value when done in English, both in oral arid written work. It might include discussions and written work on any oral activity as well as the reading.

( ) Reading Plays or Drama

See under this heading in the 8th and 11th grade programs.

( ) Reading Poetry

See under this heading in the programs for previous grades.

C. Chiefly Writing

( ) Taking Dictation

See under this heading in the programs for grades 7 to 10.

( ) Writing Answers to Oral and Written Questions

a. Explanation

See under this heading in the 7th, 9th and 10th grade programs.

The technique suggested in the 10th grade program might be varied by handing out mimeographed sheets on which there are a choice of questions, one of which should fit an answer. This is the very reverse of what is suggested in the 10th grade program. The answers may be given orally or in writing.

b. Illustration

 

Choice@of@questions:
ij.................... ijReplyP
ij....................
ij....................
ij....................
@ @
ij.................... ijReplyQ
ij....................
ij....................
ij....................
@@@Etc.

( ) Writing from Memory, with and without Tips

See under this heading in the 7th and 10th grade programs.

( ) Describing Objects, Pictures, Map, Charts, and Actions in Writing

a. Explanation

See under this heading in the programs for grades 8 to 11.

b. Describe in writing

(a) how to build a radio

(b) how to plant trees

(c) how to keep bees

(d) how to deliver a speech

(e) how to play tennis

etc.

( ) Learning to Spell, Orally and in Writing

See under this heading in the programs for previous grades.

( ) Composing Notice for the Bulletin Board

See tinder this heading in the 8th and 11th grade programs.

( ) Learning Written Composition

For principles see under this heading in the 7th grade program.

Add all the other learning activities in writing English introduced in the 12th grade.

( ) Writing Letters

See under this heading ill the programs for grades 8 to 10.

Work toward greater proficiency by continuing the activity.

( ) Writing Telegrams

See under this heading in the 11th grade program.

( ) Contributing English Articles to the School Newspaper or Magazine

See under this heading in the 9th and 11th.grade programs.

( ) Publishing an English Newspaper

See under this heading in the 10th.and 11th grade programs.

( ) Writing Reports

See under this heading in the 10th grade program.

Practice writing reports of various kinds and length, and in doing this learn above all to be systematic, organizing the notes in such a way that the report makes good reading. Greater effort should be exerted toward giving greater weight to the more important facts in proportion to the less important facts. But above all, it is important that the pupils strive for accuracy and clearness. A flowery style is quite out of place in a report.

( ) Writing Book Reviews

See under this heading in the 11th grade program.

( ) Writing Original Stories.

See under this heading in the 11th grade program.

( ) Writing a Summary Or Prcis

See under this heading in the 10th and 11th grade programs.

( ) Translating from Japanese into English

For principles and some techniques see under this heading in the 7th and 8th grade programs. See also under the 11th grade program.

D. Playing Suitable Word and Other Games

Words-from-a-Word Game-

This is a game that would be suitable for 10th and 11th grade pupils, too. However, the greater number of words acquired by 12th graders provides greater possibilities for listing more words than in the case of pupils with smaller vocabularies.

Choose a word, fairly long, and, with the use of only those letters composing the word, write down as many words as you know. If it is agreed upon that a dictionary may be used, the pupils are entitled to its use. In choosing a word, it would be unwise to choose one with many letters little used, such as q, x, or z. The commonest English letter is e, and there should be at least two or three varieties of vowels. Also a time limit must be set.

The player having the greatest number of words wins; second, third, and subsequent places going to be players in the order of the number of words listed. The game may be played between groups, if this adds to the excitement. At the end of the game all the words listed by all the contestants might be written on the blackboard. It often happens that a player writes down the same word twice. Such slips should be checked when making a final count.

The following will illustrate how words are written down from a source word:

@ Source@word:enumeration
Letters@forming@the@word:
@

 

em(M)

rate

nun

runner

morn

en(N)

mar

nut

none

mourn

I

tar

rut

oat

meter(metre)

O

mare

mute

oar

norm

a

tare

out

more

roam

eat

mire

route

nor

rim

neat

tire

tour

moan

trim

meat

enter

tune

tone

ram

net

entire

tuner

atone

rant

met

men

aim

moaner

tame

rat

mean

name

in

tram

at

ear

main

inn

rum

an

near

mane

inner

mien

ant

tear

rain

it

no

am

mere

train

tin

merit

man

team

meet

ire

iron

ran

ream

neat

mire

nine

tan

are

neater

mite

mine

manner

earn

on

mitre(miter)

tanner

urn

one

tore

mate

turn

run

torn

etc.