CHAPTER IV

SUGGESTED PROGRAM FOR THE LOER

SECONDARY SCHOOL

I. General Nature of the Program in the

Secondary School

An all-round idea of the English program in the secondary School can be obtained only upon acquiring an all-round knowledge of the program. Consequently, this cannot be done by reading this and the following chapter alone, because these chapters simply present learning experience together with the specific aims, and do not touch upon the over-all and major aims on which the experiences are based, the question of organization, the question of curriculum materials, the question of adaptation, etc.

Just as the separation of one subject from another is artificial, a fact dealt with in Chapter II, the separation, in this and the following chapter, of learning experiences one from another is artificial. It is for this reason, too, that the word chiefly is used in the headings, “Chiefly Oral," “Chiefly Reading," and " Chiefly Writing." The word “Oral” here includes aural experiences, that is, receptive as well as productive experiences.

It must be noted, too, that there is no clear division between the experiences in the lower and the upper-secondary schools. A pupil does not grow more rapidly between his 9th grade days and his 10th than between his 7th and 8th, 8th and 9th, 10th and 11th, or 11th and 12th grade days. He does not suddenly grow into an adult. Consequently, there is not and should not be any artificial gap between the lower and the upper secondary school grograms. The introduction, therefore, of recent literary style in the upper secondary school must not come suddenly or conflict with the emphasis on the colloquial standard in the lower secondary school. It is completely erroneous to assume that upon entering the 10th grade a pupil suddenly becomes capable of assimilating matter of a different nature, and that he thereby comes to require a completely different kind of educational diet. A study of the chart included in this chapter as well as the lower and upper secondary school grograms will show that the experiences must grow at a fairly even rate, that they lead from one to the other, and that the law of gradation holds just as true in the 11th and 12th grades as in the 7th and 8th grades. Recommendation of the colloquial standard in the lower secondary school and that of modern literary style in the upper secondary school, it must be stressed, does not mean that the former signifies functional organization and teaching and the latter the providing of formal knowledge requiring some conflicting techniques.

The reader may wonder why there are many more kinds of experiences set down than can be managed. The reason is that they are listed with the sole idea that the teacher might choose those experiences which he believes to be most suitable and adapt, merge, and add to them according to the pupil's interests and needs. The experiences suggested together constitute a storehouse just in the way in which a resource unit does.

Reference is constantly made to experiences under the same or similar headings in previous grades. This is done not only to avoid unnecessary repetition but to show that there is a very close relationship between one grade and another. It does not, of course, mean that mere references indicate identity of learning experiences. The fact that there must be constant development and variations, though unstated, is to be understood.

The experiences, it is important to note, do not follow each other according to any pedagogical sequence. Such a sequence is impossible when experiences are listed functionally according to kinds. The teacher must, therefore, merge, adapt, and add to as already suggested.

It is also important to note that the assigning of experiences to some of the grades and not to others is not to be taken to literally and that discontinuance of mention of any learning experiences does not mean that the learning experiences must be confined to those grades to which they are specifically assigned.

II. Specific Aims of English in the Secondary School

The Specific aims of die English language program are derived from the over-all aims and the major functional and cultural aims of the program dealt with in Chapter I. Specific aims are stated for each grade so that the teacher may know just what outcomes are likely to be realized within a given period. For this reason, they are stated in much greater detail hah the over-all aims and the major functional and cultural aims. It is suggested that the teacher, as in the case of the program itself which is based on the specific aims, cull, add to, or adapt according to the needs and interests of his pupils and their community.

Specific aims may be classified as informations and understandings, skills and abilities, attitudes and appreciations, habits and ideals. In beginning the study of a foreign language, the most important aims must, of necessity, be the development of desirable skills, abilities, and habits; although even at this stage there can be some which have to do with desirable attitudes, appreciations, and ideals. Later on, after basic skills, abilities, and habits in the language have been developed, there can be more attention to desirable attitudes, appreciations, and ideals.

Below is a list of suggested aims for grades 7 to 12 inclusive. It will be noted that there is, in general, a continuity of aims through the entire secondary school. In other words, those aims which are listed for the 7th grade continue to be aims for subsequent grades in many or most instances. In order to avoid restating aims that are practically the same except, for example, in the matter of degrees of difficulty, words that may not apply to later stages of learning are enclosed in parentheses.

Those aims which may not strictly apply beyond a certain grade level are not indicated as such. The reason for this is to prevent any idea that such aims cease to carry any importance after a certain stage of learning. A study of the list of pupil experiences grade by grade will show that the listed experiences may be concentrated upon in those particular grades and not that there may or should be a culling, or neglect at any stage of learning, of benefits subsequently acquired, especially if indeed mastery in any skill or ability has not been obtained.

III. Specific Aims by Grades

7th grade

Chiefly Oral

(1) Understanding of the geographical areas and circumstances in which English is used, abroad and in Japan.

(2) Knowledge of some outstanding differences between English and Japanese of use in learning English as speech.

(3) Ability to recognize meanings of (simple) words, phrases, and sentences when used orally in different situations and contexts.

(4) Ability to respond accurately by actions or speech or both to simple English words, phrases, requests, or sentences spoken by the teacher or other pupils.

(5) Ability to reproduce the sounds of English in imitation of a mode1.

(6) Ability to ask and answer (simple) question

(7) Ability to use the right intonation, accent, and rhythm.

(8) Ability to speak fluently with reasonable speed.

(9) Ability to describe pictures, common objects, and actions in (simple) English sentences.

(10) Ability to respond to and to use (simple) greetings.

(11) Ability to carry on a (simple) conversation involving one or two (simple) sentences at a time, based on textbook materials.

(12) Ability to sing songs.

(13) Ability to memorize and recite English prose and verse.

(14) Ability to dramatize (simple) stories and dialogues as an aid to associating speech with behavior.

(15) Ability to recognize and to use common set expressions as units of speech.

(16) Ability to express ideas in complete sentences.

(17) Ability to perform introductions with the use of (simple) expressions.

(18) Ability to give and take (simple) directions.

(19) Ability to compose orally sentences, parts of sentences etc.by means of substitution, conversion, and completion.

Chiefly Reading

(20) Ability to read phonetic symbols.

(21) Ability to recognize letters and sounds of letters.

(22) Ability to identify the sounds of words learned orally with words on the printed page.

(23) Ability to read materials based on matter assimilated orally.

(24) Ability to read words and phrases without reading them letter by letter.

(25) Ability to read aloud naturally with understanding.

(26) Ability to read printed and non-printed matter.

(27) Ability to read newspapers arid newspaper articles suitable for the grade level.

(28) Ability to read matter in books and magazines appropriate to the grade level.

(29) Ability to associate written words with pictures which describe them.

(30) Ability to find books in a library.

(31) Ability to build or help build a library.

(32) Understanding and appreciation of the value of a library.

(33) Habit of keeping an English scrapbook.

(34) Habit of direct reading; that is, without habitual resort to the vernacular.

Chiefly Writing

(35) Ability to write legibly with reasonable speed.

(36) Habit of observing accepted rules and techniques in the art of handwriting.

(37) Ability to copy words, phrases, and sentence, from the blackboard or a book, either in print script or cursive handwriting.

(38) Ability to take dictation from the teacher.

(39) Ability to write answers to oral and written questions.

(40) Ability to write matter from memory'.

(41) Ability to spell correctly.

(42) Ability to compose sentence, parts of sentence, etc. in writing by means of substitution, conversion, and completion.

 

(43) Habit of thinking in English; that is, without habitual resort to the vernacular.

(44) Appreciation and habit of co-operation in group activities.

8th grade

Chiefly Oral

(1) Ability to modify "conventional” forms of replies.

(2) Ability to announce items on a program.

(3) Ability to describe maps in (simple) English.

(4) Ability to take part in and to present (simple) memorized dialogues and plays.

(5) Ability to put on a puppet play.

(6) Ability to reproduce a (short) story, biography, or action chain through dramatization.

Chiefly Reading

(7) Ability to assist in checking the results of objective written tests.

(8) Ability to read parts spoken by characters in a story effectively.

(9) Ability to engage in silent reading.

(10) Ability to find facts in reading material to fit answers to questions based on such material.

(11) Ability to use tables of contents, indexes, and glossaries.

(12) Ability to use the dictionary.

(13) Ability to read for pleasure.

(14) Ability to read (short) biographies.

(15) Ability b read (short) Stories and fiction.

(16) Ability to read plays or drama.

Chiefly Writing

(17) Ability to punctuate correctly matter already learned, without the teacher’s assistance.

(18) Ability to use capitals correctly.

(19) Ability to describe maps in (simple) written English.

(20) Ability to use common abbreviations.

(21) Habit of keeping a reasonable margin and of observing similar conventional practices.

(22) Ability to compose notices for the bulletin board.

(23) Ability to keep a (simple) diary.

(24) Ability to write (brief) informal letters.

9th grade

Chiefly Oral

(1) Ability to describe charts in (simple) English.

(2) Ability to react orally to remarks and statements.

(3) Ability to entertain through the medium of the kamishibai.

(4) Ability to converse on the telephone for practical purposes.

(5) Ability to make (short) prepared speeches.

Chiefly Reading

(6) Ability to read for information in general.

(7) Ability to use encyclopedias and other reference books.

Chiefly Writing

(8) Ability to fill in blanks asking for information.

(9) Ability to describe charts in (simple) written English.

(10) Ability to write labels and tags.

(11) Ability to address letters.

(12) Ability to contribute article to the school newspaper or magazine.

(13) Appropriate behavior accompanying the inviting and visiting of English-speaking people.

(14) Desirable attitudes toward others' opinions in and out of committee meetings.

10th grade

Chiefly Oral

(1) Ability to describe things seen or actions performed.

(2) Ability to dramatize stories and dialogues rewritten in class for the purpose.

(3) Ability to tell stories anecdotes from reading.

(4) Ability to engage in debates.

(5) Ability to take part in pupil discussions.

Chiefly Reading

(6) Ability to read essays.

Chiefly Writing

(7) Ability to use abbreviations correctly.

(8) Ability to write reports.

(9) Ability to write a summary or précis.

(10) Development of a sense of responsibility toward one's own language behavior.

(11) Development of good, pleasant manners acceptable to Eng1ish-speaking people, such as at a party.

(12) Appreciation for the cultures of English-speaking peoples.

11th grade

Chiefly Oral

(1) Ability to conduct an interview.

(2) Ability to tell original stories.

(3) Ability to hold a parliamentary meeting.

(4) Ability to have a club meeting.

Chiefly Writing

(5) Ability to write telegrams.

(6) Ability to write book reviews.

(7) Ability to write original stories.

(8) Ability to use critical judgment in reading.

12th grade

There are no additional specific aims for the 12th grade.

In the learning experiences that follow, the brackets before the subtitles are not numbered, i. e. “( )". This is intentional, as teachers may like to add further experiences here and there and number them accordingly.

IV. Suggested Pupil Experiences in

English Language

1. Pupil Experiences in Grade 7

A. Chiefly Oral

( ) Becoming Acquainted with the English Language

a. Explanation

At the very outset a reasonable thing to do would be to tell the pupils something about the language they are going to study, to speak about some of the aims by way of discussion, and to clear up some of the problems and mistaken ideas that may arise. Too often pupils have little or no idea of why they are studying a language, but if they have clear-cut aims of their own they will not only know what they are striving after but what outcomes to expect.

When this ground has been reasonably cleared the next thing would be to introduce the pupils to the English language itself by causing them to hear it, since they cannot be expected to speak it before they hear it. This means, in other words, that silent assimilation must precede active production. In causing his pupils to assimilate English the teacher must be perfectly natural in his speech. There should, therefore, be no attempt at trying to pronounce more clearly than is compatible with naturalness. For this reason contracted rather than non-contracted forms should be introduced from the very outset, where such forms are natural, especially since non-contracted forms carry different nuances than are normal. For instance, I can’t and I cannot do not convey the same sense, the latter being not only emphatic but at times rude. Also, words should not be pronounced in isolation in those cases in which words are linked phonetically by English-speaking peoples. In the case of weakenable words (See Appendix II), these should be introduced wherever such words are not given semantic emphasis just in the same way that contracted forms must be introduced quite freely.

The teacher must convey the meaning of what he is saying by means of visual aids and necessary gestures. In the choice of matter it would do well to use something that would lead to another learning activity, namely silent active response on the part of the pupils to requests for them to do the same thing. Silent assimilation may be preceded by something which the pupils cannot be expected to assimilate, the object of such an introduction of the English language being to impress upon the pupils an acoustic feel of the language. Samples of assimilable matter are given below.

b. Samples

 

(a)This is a door.

   I am opening the door.

   I am shutting (closing) the door.

   This is a door.

   I am opening the door.

   I am going out.

   I am shutting(closing) the door. (Loudly from outside.)

   I am opening the door.

   I am coming in.

   I am shutting (closing) the door.

(b)This is a pen.

   This is a book.

   This is a pen.     It isn't a book.

   This is a book.    It isn't a pen.

   The pen is on the table (desk).

   This is a table (desk).

   The pen is on the table (desk).

   Where's the pen?

   The pen (It) is on the table (desk).

   The book is on the table.

   Where's the book?

   The book (It) is on the table (desk).

   Start again―

   What's this?

   It's a pen.

   What's this?

   It's a book.

   Where's the pen?

   It's on the table (desk).

   Where's the book?

   It's on the table (desk), too.

   What's this?

   It's a table (desk).

(c)This is a pencil.

   This is a pencil, too.

   One pencil.    Two pencils.   There are two pencils.

   This is a pencil, too.

   One pencil.   Two pencils.   Three pencils.

   There are three pencils.

   Look.   There are three pencils.

   Where are the pencils?

   The pencils (They) are on the table (desk).

   Look.  This pencil's short.

   Look.  This pencil's long.

   This is a pencil.

   This is a short pencil.

   This is a long pencil.

 

( ) Learning English through Actions-Silent Reactions

a. Explanation

The teacher gives out commands or orders and carries them out himself. After repeating this process with a numbers of commands, orders, or requests till there is reason to believe that there has been sufficient assimilation on the part of the pupils, the teacher then asks his pupils to carry out his commands, orders, or requests. Of such stimuli there are two types: (1) those that can be carried out by the whole class or whole groups and (2) those that can be carried out by individuals.

This type of exercise is excellent in that it encourages active participation on the part of pupils that makes even the less capable ones feel that they are learning because they are responding, although they do not have to utter a word of English.

b. Samples

(a)For an entire class:─

   Stand up.

   Sit down.

   open your books.

   Shut (close) your books.

   Open your books again.

   Shut (close) your books again.

   Put your books on the right side.

   Put your books in the middle.

   Put your books on the left side.

   Hold your books in your hands.

   Hold your books in your right hand.

   Hold your books in your left hand.

(b)For an entire class:─

   Open your match-boxes.

   Take out a match.

   Take out another match.

   Light a match.

   Take out three matches.

   Put one match back in the box.

   Shut your match-boxes.

   Open your match-boxes again.

   Etc.

   (With objects of this kind the teacher should request the pupils beforehand to bring them into class.)

(c)For individual pupils:─

   Stand up.

   Go up to the window.

   Open the window.   Thank you.

   Shut the window.   Thank you.

   Go back to your seat.

(d)For individual pupils:─

   Take a sheet of paper.

   Write your name.

   Now, write your teacher's name.

   (Activities of this kind can be done by all as well.)

   Hand me the sheet.   Thank you.

   Go up to the blackboard.

   Write your name.

   Draw a line under it.

   Erase your name.

   Etc.(Activities of this kind can be done by a number of pupils as well.)

 

( ) Learning English through Actions-Actions Accompanied with Speech

a. Explanation

This is an extension of the foregoing, A (2), the only difference being that the pupils accompany their actions by telling everybody what they are doing. This is done by a preliminary period of assimilation, in which the teacher provides the pattern to be followed.

There are two ways of carrying out these activities. (1) The teacher gives tips by telling the pupils what to do in the case of each action. (2) The teacher withdraws his tips and allows the pupils to do things through memorizing a chain of actions psychologically related to each other. In the case of "(1)" the teacher may give a number of directions simultaneously, if he sees that the pupils are capable of carrying them out.

b. Samples

(a)I'm opening the door.

   I'm shutting (closing) the door.

   Etc. (See A (1) b. (a).)

(b)I'm going up to the door.

   I'm walking.

   I'm opening the door.

   Etc. (The actions may be described in greater detail than in b (a).)

(c)I'm (We are) standing up.

   I'm (We are) sitting down.

   I'm (We are) opening my (our) book (books).

   Etc. (See Samples under A (2) b.)

 

(4) Learning English through Actions-Introducing the Second and Third Persons

a. Explanation

This is a further development of the foregoing types of activities. Although rather artificial, the second person can be introduced by asking the pupils what the teacher himself is doing. This may be done in two ways. (1) The teacher does and says what he is doing and asks what he is doing. (2) The teacher does and asks what he is doing but does not say what he is doing. The Second form is more difficult than the first and naturally follows the first.

The third person can be introduced by asking the pupils what another pupil or other pupils are doing. This may also be done in two ways. (1) The teacher asks a pupil to do something. The pupil or pupils carry out the requests, accompanying their actions with speech. The teacher immediately asks another pupil or other pupils what is being done. (2) The teacher asks a pupil or pupils to do something. The pupil or pupils carry out the requests but say nothing. The teacher immediately asks another pupil or other pupil or other pupils what is being done.

b. Samples

 

( ) Learning English Through Actions-Combining the Various

Types

a. Explanation

As soon as the pupils have become sufficiently skilful in the foregoing types of learning activities, it is advisable to combine the types.

b. Samples

( ) Describing Objects, Pictures, and Actions Orally

a. Explanation

The last of these, the describing of actions, has been already dealt with. The describing of pictures has also been partially dealt with in section dealing with learning English through actions.

Sets of pictures were available before the war, but such pictures are not difficult to draw, and pupils who are good at making rough drawings can be asked to prepare these. A list of objects procurable and suitable for teaching purposes should be prepared, too, including even such things as the bicycle; though a bicycle and objects which can be used for descriptions of a detailed nature may be reserved for the 8th or 9th grade.

b. Sample

 Picture of a western-style room with a number of people in it:─

 How many people are there in the room?

 What is the little boy doing?

 Is he standing or sitting down?

 On what sort of chair is he sitting?

 Etc.

( ) Asking and Answering Simple Questions-Using the Anomalous Finites

a. Explanation

It is very important to get the pupils thoroughly proficient in the use of the anomalous finites. But before proceeding with our problem further, it is necessary, for the sake of those unfamiliar with this technical term, to offer a brief explanation followed by a list of the same. The term anomalous means, according to the Idiomatic and Syntactic English Dictionary, 1 different-in some way from what is usual, while an anomalous, according to the same source, is one of the 24 finite verbs in English which are different from other finite verbs (Because they may be followed by not and may change places with the subject). (Thus-he must; he must not; must he?) Of course, in antiquated English or in some types of literature, not may accompany verbs that are not anomalous. For example: I came not; I take not: Etc. Such examples, I think not, or I believe not, do not belong to this grammatical category,as they mean, I think it is not so, or I believe it is not so.

These are the 24 anomalous finites, without which the little word not cannot be used in normal English speech.

The normal negative reply to a question in which must appears is need not (needn’t), and not must not (mustn’t). For example:

Must I have lunch now? No, you needn’t.

In all other cases the normal thing is to use the same anomalous finite in the answer as the one used in the question. That is, if an anomalous finite is used in the answer. In a conversation such as:

Is Mr. Smith coming? No, I don't think so.

the pattern is not followed, since the word so stands for he is: I don't think he is.

Since in Japanese there is a tendency from an English viewpoint to give replies that do not exactly fit the questions, it is almost imperative to train pupils, particularly in the beginning stage, to adhere to replying in the pattern used in the question.

b. Samples

( ) Asking and Answering Simple Questions-Getting Acquainted with the Wh- Questions

a. Explanation

The wh- questions are those introduced by

What Who(m) Which  
Where When Why How

 

The pupils must be thoroughly trained in the use of these words, so that they may be able to answer without hesitation. What must be replied with the name of an object or action. Who must be replied with the name of a person or names of persons. Which must be replied with the name or names of an object or objects, a person or persons, etc. Where requires the name of a place in the reply, When the time, Why the reason, and How the manner. All this is obvious. But in practice, the Japanese student tends to give answers that do not at the questions. This tendency to reply off the point must be strictly guarded against in English, since round-about answers tend to lead to misunderstandings among English-speaking peoples.

b. Samples

( ) Learning Oral Composition

A. Through Practice in Substitution

(a) Explanation

Substitution is a thing that is being carried out all the time in any language. There are two reasons, among others, for drawing particular attention to this phase in learning a foreign language:

(1) To teach the structural patterns of the language being taught,

(2) To show, inductively in most cases, that things that can be said within the framework of one pattern in one's own 1anguage cannot necessarily be treated similarly in a foreign language. For instance, although one may say:

one cannot say,

or

If a teacher has to prepare substitution tables himself he must take the utmost care to see that every one of the combinations makes good English.

If I say: I am opening the door,

and follow this with: I am closing the door,

I am substituting one word for another.

Flash strips, already referred to, are a good means of' teaching through substitution.

Samples are given below to illustrate substitution tables, and are intended to suggest further developments by doing the same eventually with all the structural types and verb patterns (See Appendix I). To such tables exercises may be set entailing constructive use of the tables.2

(b) Samples

a.

At one(two,three,etc)

one-thirty(two-thirty,etc)

half past(or after)

one,(half past two,etc)

quarter past(or after)

one(quarter past two,etc)

quarter to(or of)one

(quarter to two,etc)

on Sunday(Monday,etc)

the first(second,etc)

of January(February,etc)

January(February,etc)

the first(second,etc)

 

 

 

b.

I

Jiro

Hanako

Nobody

We

Who

etc.

came here

went to the Ginza

wrote a letter

visited Nara

had sukiyaki

bought a bicycle

etc.

yesterday

the day before yesterday

today

this morning,afternoon,etc.

yesterday morning,etc.

last night

etc. 

 

B. Through Practice in Conversion

(a) Explanation

Conversion means substituting one form for another. In a language like English in which there are many possibilities of form, for instance, the use of the infinitive in place of the gerund or the gerund in place of the infinitive, or the use of the participial phrase in place of the dependent clause and vice versa, practice in converting one form into another is of value in familiarizing the pupils with a great variety of grammatical forms. One of the simplest types is to convert one tense into another, one mood into another, one voice into another, etc.

(b) Samples

a. Seeing is believing.

   To see is to believe.

b. Watching a baseball game is one of my hobbies.

   To watch a baseball game is one of my hobbies.

c. Arriving at the station, he went straight home.

   When he arrived at the station, he went straight home.

   (Perhaps a little advanced for most 7th graders.)

d. They took him home at once.

   He was taken home (by them) at once.

   (It is customary in good usage to omit such words as“by them”, unless the agent requires special emphasis or mention.)

e. I go home at 3 o'clock.

   I went home at 3 o'clock.

   I am going home at 3 o'clock.

   I shall go home at 3 o'clock.

   Etc.

C. Through Practice in Completion

(a) Explanation

The pupil is given a number of incomplete sentences,-i.e. sentences with one or more words missing. He is required to supply the missing words and to make the sentences complete. There are more possibilities in written work in this type of exercise, since omissions in medial positions are generally not suitable in oral work. But a little profitable excitement may be experienced among the pupils through a challenge to complete a statement or question by supplying the missing words, both the teacher and pupils doing everything orally.

(b) Samples

1.This is an   (pointing to an object).

This is a   (pointing to a picture).

Here is a   (taking some thing out of a pocked).

I see a bottle on   .

I am putting this box beside   .

I am putting the pencil inside   .

I am looking out of   .

D. Through Rearranging Jumbled Words

(a) Explanation

Words in a question or a sentence are purposely put ill a jumbled order, and the pupil is required to rearrange them so that they make sense.

Instead of being dry and uninteresting, which may be the case if done just as an exercise, it might be made a little exciting by a little competition to see which group has the greatest number of successes. It would be dangerous to provide an exercise of this kind without a thorough preliminary grounding in the pertinent structural patterns.

(b) Sample

Rearrange the following words so that they make good English:

 1.window opening Ted the is.

 2.Jack breakfast is his having.

 3.station the is from to it how here far?

 4.afternoon what you are this doing?

( ) Carrying On Class Conversation (Conventional Conversation)

Normal conversation cannot be carried on in the classroom until pupils have acquired the necessary knowledge and skills. Moreover, it is pedagogically unsound to encourage any activity which would require constant promoting and correcting. In the 7th grade anything approaching normal conversation is not only impossible but pedagogically undesirable; because the kind of English taught in the early stages is not only unnatural to a great extent, though not broken, but mechanical. However, teacher-pupil conversations of die kind mentioned in the foregoing sections of this chapter can be regarded as “class conversation ", both (1) as such activities constitute communication in English, however elementary and simple, and (2) as calling such activities “class conversation" makes the pupils feel that they are engaging in something worth while.

For those unfamiliar with the term Conventional Conversation a passage is quoted from Harold E. Palmer: '' The term may be defined as forms of dialogue between teacher and student arranged according to a systematical plan in order to bring about certain specific results. Conventional Conversation comprises all those forms of dialogue not coming under the heading “Normal Conversation" (i.e. conversation in the ordinary everyday sense of the term). "

( ) Carrying On Class Conversation Based on Text, One Pupil with Another

a. Explanation

Any learning or practice activity of the kind must be preceded by careful preparation. The teacher must first provide teacher-pupil ''conversation" based on the text, so that the pupils might have a pattern to follow. It is highly dangerous to let a class loose on its own, because language-learning is functional, and unguided or misguided function, will lead to the forming of wrong habits. It is a mistake to assume that the pupils will compose correct or idiomatic questions and answers on the analogy of what they have learnt, because the process of substitution) in composition is limited by the genius of each language, both as regards vocabulary and structural patterns. It is for this reason that strict and constant supervision is necessary.

b. Sample

Text:─

 John is thirteen years old. He gets up at six o'clock every morning and has breakfast at half past six. He leaves home at seven and reaches school just before eight. He studies hard and takes part in games. His classmates like him and some come to play with him after school. Conversation based directly on text:─  Conversation based indirectly on text─

( ) Carrying On Conversation Apart from Text

This includes learning English through actions; describing objects, pictures, and actions orally; asking and answering" questions, carrying on class conversation; and other “conversational” activities carried on without the use of a text on the part of the pupils. Greetings, and responses to greetings, and answers to casual questions, too, are conversational activities.

The difference between carrying on conversation apart from the text and carrying on class conversation is rather slight. The main difference lies in the fact that while the former is not confined to conventional conversation or the classroom, the latter is.

The carrying on of conversational activities apart from the text is very important in that it causes the pupils to listen to and to use language learnt through the textbook in a number of situations outside of the narrow confines of a textbook. It is only by learning to associate language with various situations that the pupils will learn to use it in varying situations.

( ) Repeating Words, Phrases, and Sentences after a Model

a. Explanation

It is best to carry on activities of this type as needs arise, since isolated exercises of the land are not only boring but practically meaningless. The word is not the only unit of speech, and it is mainly for this reason that skills of this type have a place in the course. This problem will be dealt with in the second volume of this series, where the question of word-linking and the matter of the influence of neighboring sounds is dealt with.

b. Samples

( ) Reciting Word-Groups, Idiomatic Expressions, and Sample Sentences

This type of exercise could well follow those in repeating, words, phrases, and sentences after a model. In language learning much time is spent in memorizing useful matter and in acquiring proper habits. So long as activities requiring functional uses of matter learned are provided, following recitations of memorized matter such a learning activity is beneficial. Unless use is made in varying contexts and circumstances of matter learned by the pupils, there is little hope of looking for lasting results. Learning matter in isolation is useless. Any memorizing and reciting must be based on a full understanding and appreciation of the meaning and purpose of such a learning process. Consequently, it is unwise to assign matter little understood for recitation.

The importance of imitating and memorizing took shape in what were known as "mim-mem" methods in the United States Armed Specialized Training Programs in World War II, the term “mim-mem" having been coined from the words mimicry and memorization. Although there is nothing basically new in this learning activity, its value, when properly handled, is great,

( ) Singing Simple Songs Accompanied with Memorizing and Reciting Simple Poems

a. Explanation

Songs do not only provide a change in the teaching program but are of value in getting the pupils acquainted with the rhythm of English. In reciting any poem or song, either as a step to singing or as something apart from it, everything should be done to prevent a sing-song manner.

b. List of Songs

The following songs are suggested as suitable for the 7th grade.

( ) Listening to Phonograph Records

Phonograph records are of particular value as providing examples of good English and as a supplement to the teacher's work whose native tongue is not English. Phonograph records have both the advantage of always reproducing the same thing and the disadvantage therefore of becoming tiresome.

It is best to prepare the pupils beforehand to listen so that they may derive full benefit.

After listening to a record it is good to follow this with a discussion of points noted, as discovery is one of the best factors in teaching a subject.

Phonograph records are useful (1) in doing corrective work and (2) in listening to models to imitate.

For further discussion of the subject and for a list of records see the chapter entitled. ''Sources of Curriculum Materials and Their Grade Placement”

( ) Listening to the Radio

There is little that can be looked for in this field in the 7th grade, since most radio programs are not suited to this grade level. "To switch on a wireless set, tune in and suddenly have one’s ears filled with a cascade of strange noises-which seem all of a fumble-is not in any sense a helpful experience for the utterly inexperienced." However, pupils may derive some benefit by listening to broadcasts in English by various speakers even if they do not understand what is being said, as listening to English broadcasts is a good way of familiarizing the pupils with the sound of English. There must, however, be an effort to observe, since experience has shown that years of coming in contact with a foreign language, even in a purely foreign element, contributes little or nothing toward acquisition of an ability to understand what is being said or to speak in the language if the person in such an environment feels neither a particular desire nor a need to learn.

( ) English in School Broadcasts

Very little an be expected in this field for the 7th grade, but that very little may make all the difference by acting as a stimulus and in building up confidence.

A song learned in class, an imaginary conversation over the telephone, a reading from the textbook and a number of such little activities ca be put on without difficulty.

( ) Listening to Talkies

What has been said about listening to the radio applies to talkies, except that in the case of talkies the pictures help to convey an idea of what is being said.

( ) Putting On a Program for Another Class, School, and Parents

One of the best ways to provide stimulus in learning is to get the pupils to put on and to take part in a program from time to time, If any such activity tends to discourage learning, then there is probably something basically wrong in the teacher's handling of the activity. If the teacher is over-ambitious and wants to put on a fine display of the “wonderful" results of his teaching, so that too much is expected of the pupils, then such an activity, or any other learning activity, will result in frustration.

Seventh grade pupils can take part in reciting a poem, singing songs, or some imaginary conversation of a very simple nature. Effort should be made to get all or as many as possible to take part in a program. On no account should such activities be confined to the best pupils. If there is an English play to be put on by pupils in a higher grade, seventh grade pupils can help setting the stage, preparing posters, etc.

Whatever the pupils do, their activities should serve as a stimulus to learning and the activities themselves necessitate the learning of English such as will contribute to the entire English course in the seventh grade.

( ) Learning Simple Greetings and Set Expressions

a. Explanation

Greetings should be introduced from the earliest stages and in the most natural manner. When the teacher enters the classroom in the morning he can say, Good morning, or Good morning, everybody. Such expressions, whether collocational or noncollocational (See Chapter III), should be taught as semantic wholes. The teacher is teaching English as speech and not English as words.

After having introduced certain forms, the teacher can then get his pupils to repeat, learn, and to use them. It is best, wherever possible, to teach socially accepted forms in appropriate circumstances. Many forms of greeting can be introduced in the most natural manner.

It is a mistake to assume that for every Japanese form of greeting or set expression there is an English equivalent. Many things the Japanese say the Britisher or American simply does not say. For instance such expressions as, Itadakimasu, Gochisōsama, Ittemairimasu, Tadaima, Okaerinasai, simply find no equivalents in English. Language is a social instrument, so that habits of speech vary according to variations in social patterns. The semantic areas that words and expressions cover are also different. For instance, Ohayō gozaimasu should be out of place if said at or a little past noon. Yet one may occasionally hear Britishers greet each other with a Good morning even around 1 o'clock. This may be due partly to the fact that most Britishers have lunch about 1 o'clock. Good morning, moreover, is used as a light form of Good bye.

b. Samples

( ) Performing Introductions

a. Explanation

When introducing one person to another it is not sufficient, as is sometimes done in Japanese, to say, “This is my friend.” Both the name of the person introduced and the name of the person to whom another person is introduced must be clearly mentioned. There are a number of ways of introducing people to each other, but the simplest forms can be taught. Besides, the simplest forms are generally acceptable.

The pupils should be taught to follow British and American customs in all activities of the kind. The following are some of the things to be observed: (1) Introduce a junior to a senior. (2) Introduce a man to a woman. (3) Do not offer to shake hands with a woman. The woman may choose not to shake hands. (4) Stand up if you are seated. (5) Do not bow in Japanese fashion and shake hands at the same time. This is a mixture of Japanese and Western custom. (6) Give the name of the one regarded as the senior first by addressing the senior first. These are general rules, and common sense would have to be the guide in cases of doubt, such as in regard to the question of seniority.

b. Sample

Mr. Thomas, may I introduce Mr. Yamada?
  Mr. Yamada, Mr. Thomas.
How do you do, Mr. Yamada. (They shake hands.)
How do you do, Mr. Thomas. I'm glad to meet you.
I'm glad to meet you, too.

( ) Carrying On Simple Conversations on the Telephone

a. Explanation

In the 7th-grade stage even the idea of such an activity may sound ambitious to most teachers. However, there is no idea of expecting the pupils to carry on the type of conversation normally heard over die telephone. Just the simplest questions and answers on any subject will do. The questions, too, may be read from a book or manuscript, and the entire conversation may be prepared beforehand, if anything spontaneous is too hard. The main point is to add life and interest to the classroom and to make the pupils feel that they are getting somewhere.

b. Sample

( ) Giving and Taking Directions

This is a development of English through actions in which directions are given and followed out. The pupils can be taught to say,

and to follow them out. When the teacher has given sufficient practice in listening to and taking directions, such activities can from time to time be transferred to the pupils in turn.

B. Chiefly Reading

( ) Reading Phonetic Script

There is am immediate and an ultimate object in learning phonetic script. One is as an instrument for teaching pronunciation, and the other the use later on of the dictionary in which phonetic symbols are given, since English-Japanese dictionaries compiled in this country employ phonetic symbols.

Some teachers would go so far as to teach the pupils to write what they say in phonetic symbols, but this is not in general practice.

For further enlightenment on this problem see the Appendix on the subject and the chapter on the teaching of pronunciation in Volume II of the present series.

( ) Making and Reading from Flash Cards and Strips (Words, Phrases, and Sentences)

a. Explanation

As a reading of the chapter entitled, '' Sources of Curriculum Materials and Their Grade Placement," will show, it is unsound pedagogy to assume that teaching would have to suffer because of lack of teaching materials. True, one cannot do without any materials. But it is true too that a great many of the teaching materials can be made, and that activities involving the making of such materials are in themselves worth while. Among such materials that an be made easily, perhaps with the help of the art teacher, are flash cards and flash strips.

Flash cards are cards with words written on them for purposes of showing them to the pupils for a moment so that they may read riot letter by letter, but by reading a word or words at a single glance or single sweep of the eye. The main condition is that they be written very clearly so that everyone may be able to read, including those sitting at the back of the classroom. Flash strips are strips of cardboard with slots in them to allow strips with words written one on top of the other to move vertically, in the manner illustrated below and are useful in teaching the structure of the English language.

b. Illustrations

 

( ) Reading Words, Phrases, and Sentences Describing Objects, Persons, or Places in a Picture

This is the next step to the purely oral stage of learning and is a well-worn method of teaching. Many foreign language books published abroad follow this plan, but if there are few or no suitable books, such material can be prepared for classroom use.

The main differences between English through actions and English through pictures are (1) that actions are better fitted for teaching matter connected with movements and (2) that pictures can represent persons, places, and objects impossible of description by means of actions or actual objects.

Teaching through the use of pictures can be enlivened and made more effective by integrating it with teaching by means of actions and actual objects.

( ) Reading from the Blackboard

This reading would include phonetic script written down by the teacher and should, except in case of phonetic script, represent matter already familiar to the pupils. In the case of phonetic script, exercises in pronunciation may be given on occasion purely for the sake of teaching good, or correcting bad, pronunciation. Acoustic image, in principle, should always precede visual image.

Before pupils are asked to read from the printed page it is wise to provide readings from the blackboard as an intermediary step.

( ) Reading from Prepared Mimeographed Materials

Variety of activities is always an important criterion, and pupils like to read something that appears a little different from the beautifully printed textbook. A number of pupils may be asked in turn to engage in writing, if they are good enough at handwriting, and this will help them to read all sorts of handwriting. This might develop later into a class English paper.

( ) Reading from Materials Written by pupils

This type of activity, integrated with other activities, is of value for reasons given above.

( ) Reading from the Textbook

a. Explanation

Pupils must be made ready to read before they are allowed to read. Otherwise, reading will become a struggle and the pupils will quickly fall into the habit of analyzing rather than reading or, worse still, become frustrated. There is nothing more harmful than to teach English by getting the pupils acquainted with what is written by analyzing the printed page. Everything is made to depend on the text1, and the poor pupil struggles with (1) the spelling, (2) the pronunciation, (3) the parts of speech, (4) the construction, etc., till he finally arrives at an idea of the meaning.

The correct way is to base all reading matter on oral work, to make certain that with no wasted or side-tracking effort, the pupil may be able or guided so as to be able to read.

If the linguistic matter of the reading material has been to a large extent previously acquired through oral work followed by the reading of words, phrases, and sentences on the blackboard, by means of flash cards or flash strips, etc., then the pupils are ready to read, and the activity is not a terrible burden. In practice it is difficult in a strange language to prevent initial efforts from resulting in letter-by-letter reading, but this danger can be minimized through proper preliminary exercises, and corrected. Illustrations are given below to show ways of reading from inferior to superior.

b. Illustrations

(a) Letter by letter:
  J i r o  g o t  u p  a t  s i x  o' c l o c k  t h i s  m o r n i n g.
(b) Syllable by syllable:
  Ji ro got up at six o'clock this morn ing.
(c) Word by word:
  Jiro got up at six o'clock this morning.
(d) By groups or patterns:
  Jiro got-up at-six-o'clock this-morning.
(e) A whole sentence:
  Jiro got-up-at-six-o'clock-this-morning.
  (The last of these is practically out of reach for beginners,
 but it is a goal to aim at).

( ) Reading Aloud in Unison and Individually

Reading aloud, especially in unison, is an activity that is overdone, and it encourages lazy teaching, as the teacher assumedly does little work. If one considers the specific aims of the English course, one may question such an activity in view of the fact that people rarely engage in such an activity in life. Most of our reading is silent, so that it is because of the necessity of impressing upon the pupils (1) proper pronunciation, (2) clear enunciation, (3) appropriate expression and rhythm, (4) pleasing tone of voice, and (5) fluency, that such an activity has meaning. If the teacher is competent, it will require all his efforts and attention to derive the fullest benefit out of such an activity. If the teacher is not competent, it will not only encourage lazy teaching but do a certain amount of harm, especially if he is not quick to detect undesirable habits or call attention to good habits.

Reading aloud individually is better suited for purposes of checking whether a pupil is reading with understanding or not, but one drawback is that it takes up much time and hence becomes tiresome.

It is a common fault among teachers to be overcritica1 or to point out only the faults, criticism does not comprise only faultfinding. In fact, pointing out merits or suggesting better ways is a much better way of teaching.

If there are characters in a story, let the pupils take the different parts. Occasional competitions in reading, with judges presiding, may be liked by pupils. Sometimes, too, it may be good to have one pupil read aloud to the rest of the class or to a group of pupils.

( ) Reading Newspapers and Weeklies

If there are English newspapers or weeklies specially designed to supplement teaching in the 7th grade, the pupils should be encouraged to read them, provided the English is good. It may not be possible or advisable for each pupil to buy a copy. What can be done is to buy a few copies and to file them in a library, so that every pupil may have access to them.

If the newspapers and weeklies are the property of the class, the pupils can be taught the appropriate attitude and care due such property.

( ) Reading Books and Magazines

What applies to reading newspapers and weeklies applies equally to reading books and magazines.

( ) Keeping an English Scrapbook

A beginning can be made in this form of learning activity by getting the pupils to collect and paste in a notebook matter written in English which they can understand and is of interest to them. There are a few publications prepared for beginners in English, and these should prove of interest. The teacher, however, as in all other learning activities, should see to it that the matter selected is worth while, and constantly give sympathetic guidance.

The pupils can lean to be systematic by organizing materials collected in order of date of publication, type of publication, etc.

These scrapbooks can be exhibited or exchanged among the pupils, with records kept to see that property is not misplaced, mishandled, or lost.

( ) Reading Poetry

Little can be done in the 7th grade in the field of reading poetry, since there are very few poems in which the English reads like prose and is at the same time easy enough. Poetry which reads like prose tends to be uninteresting as poetry, and Wordsworth's best poems, in spite of his declaration that poetry should be written in the language of prose, are mostly those that do not read like prose. For this reason, it would be advisable to let the pupils read the words of songs in English they may sing with a degree of appreciation and expression appropriate to the 7th grade. Poems have a definite advantage in teaching the rhythm of English, which is a stress rhythm lacking in the Japanese language. The pupils, however, must be kept from reading in a sing-song way, which is the surest way to kill any poem.

( ) Building a Classroom and School Library

Encouragement and guidance should be given and plans be made to start a classroom and/or a school library. In the initial stage the pupils cannot be expected to do much reading, but it must be remembered that an ultimate aim of learning to read is to become able to read all types of literature. The teacher and the pupils together can therefore start a classroom library of English periodica1, pamphlets, and books of all types, or they may lend a hand in building an English section in the school library. The school authorities, unless acquainted with the problems of teaching English, may not be efficient in choosing English book. The English teacher and the pupils can help the librarian and hand in recommendation or requests for certain things they may like to have.

The library is the center of a school and this becomes more and more true as the pupils progress in their knowledge and appreciation of English and English literature. Consequently, an early beginning should be made in an understanding, appreciation, and use of a library. Even half a dozen or so books stacked on a shelf is a library, and is a starting point of a bigger library.

( ) Finding Books and Other Things in a Library

A beginning can be made in this activity. The pupils, of course, could hardly be expected to find books with the use of an alphabetical index with any proficiency, if at all, but if the titles and names of authors are in Japanese as well, they can be taught to find a book by going through index cards.

C. Chiefly Writing

( ) Drilling in Handwriting

a. Explanation

Motor control is more developed by the time 7th-grade pupils start to write English than in their 1st-grade days when they begin to write Japanese. However, in spite of this advantage, the creating of a new bet of habits is such an important step and responsibility that careful attention must be paid to (1) writing legibly, (2) not crowding or over-spacing the letters, (3) writing so that the letters are parallel to each other, (4) writing in a reasonable size, (5) writing the letters correctly, according to the manner of English-speaking peoples, (6) holding the pen or pencil with a light pressure and between the thumb and the first and second fingers, (7) placing the paper at a proper slant and position, (8) sitting upright with the head leaning slightly forward with the eyes not too near the paper.

b. Sample

(1) Writing legibly-

Unless the pupil wants to write in particularly beautiful fashion, it is not necessary to press for aesthetic appearance. What is considered absolutely necessary today is that the writing be quite legible.

(2) Not crowding or over-spacing the letters-

(3) Writing so that the letters are parallel to each other-

(4) Writing in a reasonable size-

Neither too small so as to be hard to read, nor too big so that there are few lines to a page.

(5) Writing the letters correctly according to the manner of English-speaking peoples-

Not intermingling non-serif and serif letters in print script:

causing a confusion by making the look like a The line over the is a serif, and is not a part of the letter proper. Furthermore, it is much too big. without serif is

Capital is not a small g written large: The order of strokes in capital and , when written in a number of strokes, is , A wrong order causes letters to be joined wrongly in rapid writing: It should be:

(Note: These are some of the few points stated as illustrations.)

(6) Holding the pen or pencil with a light pressure and between the thumb and the first and second fingers-

Grabbing the pen or pencil causes tension of the muscles and encourages tension of the nerves. It is tiring, and fatigue reduces proficiency, not only in handwriting but in other activities,

(7) Placing the paper at a proper slant and position-

The proper slant is secured by placing the sheet at an angle which causes the letters to be written at a desired angle when the writers drawing the down strokes at right angles toward himself-

The proper position for the paper is to place it right in front of you. Otherwise, it will result in result in bad posture, a crooked spine, and ill health.

(8) Sitting upright with the head leaning sligh1y forward with the eyes not too near the paper-

This is done for the sake of one's health. An ease of poise and proper distance of the eyes from the paper are essential to prolonged and efficient work.

From the point of facility it may be advisable to begin with the print script, and later on to learn the cursive style. The print script, moreover, is so much closer in style to printed style in books, that it may be convenient from this viewpoint, too, to teach it first. In Great Britain and the United States print script is regularly used by some adults and is accepted as suitable even in business firms. It is recognized that the use of the print script does no lower the speed. The value of the cursive style for Japanese pupils may be justified by the fact that ability to write in it should conduce to ability in reading matter written in it.

( ) Copying Words, Phrases, and Sentences from the Blackboard

This is a mechanical skill, and the pupils should be taught above all to be accurate and rapid in copying. It is not an activity in general practice in life, so that it should not be overdone. It is necessary to make sure that there is no glare on the blackboard and that no pupil has to strain his eyes.

( ) Taking Dictation

Dictation should be given very sparingly in the 7th grade. It is much more difficult than copying from written or printed matter. It has its advantage in fixing what the pupils have already learnt, and it is harmful if it is difficult or serves as a kind of puzzle. Only what pupils know very well may be dictated to them with safety and benefit.

Dictation is of benefit. (1) for training the ear to listen carefully, (2) for connecting spoken with written speech, (3) for spelling out words on paper and so fixing the habit to spell correctly in written and connected speech, (4) for impressing the component parts of sentences by proper phrasing on the part of the teacher. For instance, This morning/Taro and Hanako/went to the station.

( ) Writing Answers to Oral and Written Questions

Writing is no more than putting down what might be said orally in written symbols, so that if proper oral preparation is given, there should be little difficulty on the part of the pupils in “composing” the answers. In the beginning stage the written form of speech should not be different from the spoken form. It is principally in the upper secondary school that the current “literary” style is taught which, in turn, is not very different form the spoken style.

Apart from the oral preparation, there should be preparation in written work. If preliminary work is thorough, there should be no difficulty on the part of the pupils expressing themselves in writing. The important thing to bear in mind is that one does not learn a language by writing and that writing is reproducing what one “knows” in written symbols. There is consequently no essential difference between oral and written composition, and the teacher is referred to explanations and samples to oral experiences.

( ) Writing from Memory, with and without Tips

Verses, short passages, idiomatic expressions, etc. may be given for writing from memory. So that the effort might not go wasted, the matter to be memorized must be carefully chosen.

There are two classifications: (1)things to be memorized for their own merit, such as poems, collocations, (2)things to be memorized that may serve as foundations for further work, such as matter following structural patterns along which other expressions may be constructed by analogy.

Tips may be given by giving one or two of the opening words to sentences, paragraphs, or stanzas, the amount of tipping being left to the discretion of the teacher and the ability of the pupils. Tips may be withdrawn if the matter to be written from memory is sufficiently easy or the pupils have advanced sufficiently to be able to do without them. The activity may take the form of completion excises, the parts to be written in being much greater.

( ) Learning to Spell, Orally and in Writing

a. Explanation

To be able to spell correctly is a tremendous social asset, for society frowns upon a poor speller. Since language learning is a habit-forming activity, the pupils should be trained from the beginning to spell correctly. Thos applies to the earlier stages to a greater degree than to later, because the words with which the pupils come in contact first are, or should be, the commonest English words, and the common words are used far in excess of rarer words. Moreover, the commoner the word the more irregular it is apt to be, both as regards form and as regards spelling. This is a phenomenon that is well recognized in the evolution of languages.

Spelling requires skill in teaching, as it is apt to get frightfully dry. If the pupils are made to form teams and to compete with each other or are given exercises that invite their interest, they sill learn much better. Some authorities believe that oral spelling is of less value than written because spelling is necessary in written speech.

b. Samples

(a) Pictures with words for the pupils to write down, either
  (1) by filling in the missing letters or (2) by writing
 in theentire word.
Picture of woman w-m--
Picture of woman b-----d--r--
Picture of boy playing the piano Tom is pl-----the-----.
Picture of girl closing the window Mary----c-o-------w-----.

(b) Pictures with words of the pupils to spell orally.

(c) Words that sound similar to Japanese ears and are therefore confusing.

 

( ) Leaning Written Composition

Practically everything that can be done orally can be transferred to writing. Consequently, reference is mad to activities in oral expression of all kinds already dealt with. This means that actions, objects, and pictures can be described in writing instead of orally, and that questions too can be answered in writing. Matter learnt through substitution, coversion, and completion are especially useful in learning the structural aspect of English, and here again what is involved is a mere transfer of the oral to the written. The mechanical side of composion, such as capitalization, punctuation, spelling, etc., are skills that naturally accompany written composition, and attention may be drawn to here matters as needs arise.

( ) Translating from Japanese into English

a. Explanation

There are two kinds of translating: (1) translating the parts of a sentence, part by part or word by word, and then rearranging them to fit into a structural pattern in the language into which the matter is being translated; (2) translating the meaning of what is expressed in one language into the nearest possible or reasonably equivalent meaning in the other.

The first method is unscientific; because expressions in one language are rarely compose of equivalent elements in another, even if we were to use the term “equivalent” loosely. The second method is scientific because without meaning language would be dead. It is important to remember too that the word is not the only unit of meaning and also that context plays a big semantic role.

b. Samples

M mezurashii! (on meeting a person whom one had not seen for a long time)
How novel! (a literal translation that does not mean the same thing)

 

Nagai koto arigat gozaimashita.
Thank you very much for a long time. (Literal translation without making the English ungrammatical)
Thank you for all you have done. (Translation of the meaning of what is said)

Although translation has a place in foreign language teaching, its dangers must not be overlooked. It is only one of a number of ways of teaching the meaning, certainly not the only or ideal way. In learning a non-cognate language translation, properly handled, is both a time-saver and sometimes the only way. But real translation is impossible without first knowing the meaning of what is said or written. Consequently, it should be used sparingly, and with discretion.

D. Playing Suitable Word and Other Games

Alphabet Game-

Divide the class into equal groups. Read out the letters of the alphabet two or three at a time. Each person must write out the letters in print or cursive style, the style depending on the teacher’s directions, in the following way:

GHO ZZR TDG
TPK QUI PSS
LS DSJ AYE
VGU MQS KCK
IXW LOE YMN
UNP EST BXI

Upon completion, a score is taken of the number of correct transcriptions, there being, for instance, 18possible correct transcriptions in the list given above. If it is impossible to divide the class into equal groups, every member may compete with the other members of the class.

Some teachers may prefer to read out letter combinations that form actual words. Whether the words are known or not to the pupils, this is a better way.

Spelling Card Game-

The class makes two, four, or six sets of the English alphabet, written clearly and of equal size in block capital son cardboard cut into squares of 3, 4, or 5 inches along the edge. The class is then divided into two opposing teams and each team is given one, two, or three sets of the alphabet. The letters are distributed so that the pupils have one, two , or three letters each depending on the number of cards to go round.

If the umber of cards is not the same as the number of pupils, which would be true in most cases, some of the pupils will have more cards than others. It is best as far as possible to prevent a pupil from having a mixture of cards, for instance, letters l, a, and b. The method of distribution, too, should be the same in both teams; in order to prevent any unfairness; and the distances from the desks to the edge of the blackboard along which the cards are to be arranged must, together with other condition, be equal.

In dividing a class into two opposing teams two pupils may be chosen by vote, and these two may choose by turns the members of their respective teams. A leader is then chosen, and he gives out a word which can be made with the letters of the alphabet in possession by each team. In other words, a word' such as arrive, in which there are two r''s, can be given if there are two or more sets of the alphabet. As soon as the leader gives out a word, orally of course, both teams compete to see which side can spell out the word by arranging the cards along the edge of the blackboard, the blackboard being divided into halves by a chalk line down the center.

Two pupils who had formed the teams may act as "pep" leaders.

A score should be kept, and a system adopted for giving and deducting points for spelling as well as speed.

Observation Game-

A dozen or more articles are placed on a desk. The pupils walk past them slowly, observing the articles. After returning to their seats, they are required to write out a list of the English names of the articles on display. Needless to say, only those things whose English names the pupils know may be placed in view.

Sentence Building Game-

A class is divided into two opposing teams. In this game words, not letters, are written on strips of cardboard, such as IS, THIS, BOOK, A. One team hands such a set of words, written on separate cards, to the other team and the first member on the list arranges these words so as to form a sentence. Unless the first person succeeds in the attempt, this side loses a given number of points. If the second person succeeds in the attempt, this side loses a given number of points. If the second person succeeds, a fewer number of points is gained than in the case of success at first attempt. No point is gained if both attempts end in failure. If this process proves too easy for purposes of competition, only success at first attempt may be allowed to count.

When one side has finished in an attempt to compose a sentence, to other side takes the challenge to compose another sentence with another set of cards, provided by the opposing team.

In order to promote fairness a decision must be made on the length of the sentences in terms of number of words, and only those words with which everyone is expected to be familiar must be used.

The results may be in the form of a statement or a question. For instance, in the case of IS, THIS, BOOK, A, the result may be a question, IS THIS A BOOK? or a statement, THIS IS A BOOK.

This is an interesting and exciting form of rearranging jumbled words, a leaning activity previously mentioned.

1 Compiled by A. S. Hornby, E. V. Gatenby, and A. H. Wakefield, Institute for Research in Language Teaching, Tokyo, Japan, 1942, Republished 1949

2 See Harold E. Palmer, Systematic Exercises in English Sentence-Building, Stages I & H, Institute for Research in English Teaching, Tokyo. Copy-right, 1924

3 Harold E. Palmer, The Oral Method of Teaching Language, W. Heffer & Sons Ltd., Cambridge, Copyright, 1921, p. 63

4 See Robert John Matthew, Language and Area Studies in the Armed Services, American Council on Education, Washington, D.C., Copyright, 1947, pp. 7, 169

5 Charles Duff, How to Lean a Language, Basil Blackwell, Oxford, 1948, p.62

 

2. Pupil Experiences in Grade 8

A. Chiefly Oral

( ) Learning English through Actions

a. Explanation

The present perfect tense, which is generally thought to be too difficult for the 7th grade, can be taught effectively through actions. Also see under this heading in the 7th grade program.

b. Samples

( ) Describing Objects, Pictures, Maps, and Actions Orally

a. Explanation

The explanation given for the 7th grade applies in principle to the 8th grade. However, as the pupils progress, it would do well to introduce objects and pictures calling for more involved types of description. A short list of objects considered as suitable for the 8th grade is given below:

(a) model house (g) statiorlery
(b) bicycle (h) clothing
(c) clock (i) table-ware
(d) dolls (j) flowers
(e) tea set (k) model airplane
(f) money   etc.

Simple descriptions of maps may be introduced, too, and the second of the samples appearing below is given by way of a suggestion.

b. Samples

Description of an object: -

The teacher gives a preliminary description of a bicycle which is brought into the classroom. He may engage in a description like this:

(Someone knocks at the door.) Come in. Hello, it's a bicycle! A bicycle in the classroom! All right. Bring it here. Thank you. Now, boys and girls, look at this machine. It's a bicycle. It's a man's bicycle. It's not a woman's bicycle. It's not a child's bicycle, either. These are the handles. I use them to steer the bicycle. I am turning the handles to the right. Look again. I am turning the handles to the left. Now, look at the wheels. Watch what I'm going to do. I'm going to turn them. Now, the wheels are tuning. I'll turn them fast. See how fast they go! I'll turn them slowly. See how slowly they go! Now, I'm going to stop them. I'm going to put on the brakes. Etc.

The pupils are then asked to give descriptions in reply to questions.

Description of a map: -

The teacher gives descriptions of the following nature:

The pupils are then asked to give descriptions in reply to questions.

( ) Asking and Answering Questions

a. Explanation

Pupils must be led on gradual1y to use forms of replies that do not strictly follow the pattern of the question. That is, in the early stage it is necessary and advisable, for a number of reasons that cannot be discussed in this brief space, to train the pupils to become proficient in giving answers that fit the grammatical patterns of the questions, as in the case of the straightforward questions employing the anomalous finites, referred to under "Asking and Answering Questions" in the 7th grade. There must, however, come a time when the pupils must learn to use more elastic and colorful answers, too. This transition is a difficult one, but can be done in two ways. A full and masterly treatment of the subject is found in T. Orde Lee's English "English", Part II, (The Sanseid Co., Tokyo, Osaka, Copyright 1932), which is out of print. The following samples are not taken from this source.

b. Samples

1. By the use of such expressions as I think,I believe:

2. By the use of adverbs and adjectives:

( ) Learning Oral Composition

The principles and techniques mentioned under the same heading for the 7th grade hold equally well for the 8th grade. The difference would lie in the introduction of additional structural patterns, tenses, and ways of expression of 8th grade level.

( ) Making Announcements, including Items on a Program

a. Explanation

The pupils can start make announcements in English, and this will mean putting their knowledge of English to practical use, a highly important part of the English course.

b. Samples

1. We shall have a baseball match this afternoon between our school
and X Lower Secondary School.
2. Tomorrow is a national holiday, and we shall have no school.
3. We shall have an English program and we have been asked to
take part.
4. The next on our program is a song by Schumann, sung by Hanako
Takeda.
  Etc.

( ) Carrying On Class Conversation (Conversational Conversation)

See under this heading in the program for the 7th grade. Further developments can be made along lines stated under the heading "Asking and Answering Questions" in the 8th grade programs.

( ) Carrying On Conversation Based on Text, One Pupil with Another

See under this heading in the 7th grade program. The main, if not the only, difference between the 7th and 8th grades would be in the more advanced nature of the language and content.

( ) Carrying On Conversation Apart from Text

See under this heading in the 7th grade program.

( ) Repeating Words, Phrases, and Sentences after a Model

a. Explanation

See the explanation given under this heading in the 7th grade program. Although there an be no rigid division between the exercises in the 7th and 8th grades, particular attention might be devoted to sound clusters, with increase in vocabulary. A partial list is given below:

b. Samples

Initial consonant clusters-

sweet(sw) twelve(tw)
bring(br) etc.
crooked(kr) street(str)
dry(dr) splendid(spl)
free(fr) square(skw)
  etc.
scale(sk)  
slip(sl)  
small(sm)  
play(pl)  
flow(fl)  

Final consonant clusters-

lend(nd) cold(ld)
bent(nt) six(ks)
once(ns) self(lf)
must(st) fact(kt)
curve(only when r is  pronounced as in most American speech) eighth(tθ)

eights(tθs)

lamps(mps)  
fifth(fθ)  
clothes(z)  etc.

( ) Reciting Word-Groups, Idiomatic Expressions, and Sample Sentences

See the explanation given under this heading in the 7th grade program.

( ) Singing Simple Songs Accompanied with Memorizing and Reciting Simple Poems

a. Explanation

See the explanation given under this heading in the 7th grade program.

b. List of Songs

The following songs are suggested as suitable for the 8th grade:

Sweet and Low (Tennyson-Barnby)

Long, Long Ago (Barly)

Good Night-Round (Old English song)

Jingle, Bells (J. Pierpont)

Holy Night, Silent Night (Grber)

( ) Listening to Phonograph to Records

See under this heading in the 7th grade program.

( ) Listening to the Radio

What is said under this heading in the 7th grade program applies to the 8th grade, except for the fact that radio English lessons are generally more suited to the 8th than to the 7th grade. If there is a program specially prepared to supplement teaching in the 8th grade and the pupils have advanced sufficiently in English this will be all the more true.

( ) Engaging in School Broadcasts

More can be expected in this field than in the 7th grade. A study of radio techniques in presenting Japanese programs would in principle apply to and help those in putting on English programs.

It would do well for 8th grade pupils to learn how to announce a program. The wording can be the same as those used in announcing items on a program other than the radio.

( ) Listening to Talkies

What has been said about listening to the radio applies to talkies, except that in the case of talkies the pictures help to convey an idea of what is being said.

( ) Dramatizing Stories, Including Dialogues

a. Explanation

In the 8th grade a beginning can be made in dramatizing, since(1) there are some stories and biographies that can be dramatized,(2) there are dialogues and materials of a conversational nature that can be dramatized, and (3) the "action chains” learned in "English through Actions" serve as a foundation toward the acting of little plays.

In the 8th grade the pupils cannot be expected to paraphrase matter read. That is, they cannot re-word and re-arrange matter they have read so that they can be acted. The teacher, therefore, would have to take on the burden himself or, what would be better, do the rewriting by presenting the problem to the pupils and calling for their suggestions. This will not only make a play something that belongs to the pupils themselves but provide studies in written composition.

It is advisable to have as many pupils take part as possible, so that the less capable may have opportunities to learn and not be frustrated.

A sample is given below of how an ''action chain" can be developed. The example is taken from The Teaching of English Abroad.1 The wording of the sub-headings is ours.

b. Sample

Action chain:

 Developed action chain:

( ) Performing Puppet Plays

Puppet plays provide another means of putting the English learned into lively and interesting use. As in the case of dramatization in which the pupils themselves become the actors, the process of preparation in itself is purposive and educative, not to mention the benefits derived from the performance itself.

See under "Dramatizing Stories, Including Dialogues”.

( ) Putting On a Program for Another Class, School, and Parents

The principles mentioned under the same heading for the 7th grade apply to the 8th. In the 8th grade, the learning and practice activities will naturally be of a more advanced nature. See especially the explanations under "Dramatizing Stories, Including Dialogues " and " Performing Puppet Plays ".

( ) Learning Greetings and Set Expressions

a. Explanation

See the explanation given under this heading in the 7th grade program.

In the 8th grade matter of greater difficulty may be added. There can be no rigid list because of the highly elastic nature of social expressions.

b. Samples

Please remember me to your mother.

Please send my regards to    

Won't you please be seated?

Will you please wait a minute?

May I trouble you to open the door?

Etc.2

( ) Performing Introductions

a. Explanation

See the explanation given under the same heading in the 7th grade grogram.

In the 8th grade further conversational matter might be added to the introduction.

b. Sample

 

 

 

( ) Conversing on the Telephone

a. Explanation

See under the heading "Carrying On Simple Conversations on the Telephone” in the 7th grade program.

In the 8th grade activities may be added in which, following the preliminaries (Hello, etc.), imaginary requests or enquiries are made.

b. Samples

(Following the preliminaries)

  A: Will you bring my English scrapbook when you come?
I left it at home.
  B: All right. I'll bring it.
or:    
  A: Please tell Mother I shall be back by four.
  B: All right. I'll tell her.
or:    
  A: Please buy half a dozen pencils on your way here.
  B: All right. I'll do so.
  A: Thanks for the trouble.
  B: Don't mention it.

( ) Giving and Taking Directions

See under this heading in the 7th grade program.

The variety and extent of this activity will constantly depend on the nature and amount of English speech that can be put to use in this way that the pupils have mastered. Consequently, no list of samples is given below.

B. Chiefly Reading

( ) Reading Phonetic Script

See under this heading in the 7th grade program.

( ) Making and Reading from Flash Cards and Strips

See under this heading in the 7th grade program.

( ) Reading Words, Phrases, and Sentences Describing Objects,

Persons, and Places in a Picture

See under this heading in the 7th grade program.

( ) Reading from the Blackboard

See under this heading in the 7th grade grogram.

( ) Reading from Prepared Mimeographed Materials

See under this heading in the 7th grade program.

With increase in the amount of rending and written work, there may be also an increase in this learning experience. One of the most important principles to remember is to integrate this activity with other activities.

( ) Reading from Materials Written by Pupils

See under this heading in the 7th grade program.

In the 8th grade a beginning can be made in getting the pupils to help in checking the results of objective written tests with the use of a key. In order to prevent oversight in detecting errors in spelling, punctuation, etc., it would do well for the teacher to go over the papers rapidly after they have been checked mutually by the pupils and, later on, with increase in skill among the pupils, to let two or three pupils go over the same paper or papers.

The reading by the pupils of notice written and put up by themselves, with the teacher supervising, is a useful activity.

( ) Reading from the Textbook

See under this heading in the 7th grade program.

D.H. Stott says, "Perhaps the most urgent remark to make about reading material is that it must be simple - so simple that a plodding translation is unnecessary.” "The criterion of difficulty should not be whether the class can translate the text, but whether they can understand it without translation."8

( ) Reading Aloud in Unison and Individually

See under this heading in the 7th grade grogram.

( ) Reading Parts Spoken by Characters in a Story

Mention is made of this activity under the heading "Reading Aloud in Unison and Individually" in the 7th grade program. For a beginning of any serious effort in this direction, the 8th grade is more appropriate.

The reading may be preceded by an explanation and discussion of the characters. This will throw light on why a certain character should speak in the way he or she does, and thus make the learning activity more interesting and meaningful.

The activity will serve as an excellent step in teaching the techniques of conversational English and for presenting dialogues and little plays.

For proper intonation and expression the teacher may resort to matter in which intonation marks are given by competent Eng1ish-speaking authorities or get their assistance beforehand. If mishandled, the experience can do much harm, causing the pupils to acquire wrong speech habits.

( ) Engaging in Silent Reading

a. Explanation

Although there is a definite place for Fading aloud in learning a foreign language, there is not only a danger of this activity taking too much of the pupil's time but of resulting in a neglect of an activity which in actual life is engaged in to a much greater extent, namely, silent reading.

The teacher must constantly remember that reading is reading and not deciphering. If the reading matter is properly graded, so that the pupil does not have to find out the meaning of a new word or phrase after every dozen or so words with which he is acquainted, and if there is appropriate preparation before the pupil is confronted with a text to read, he may then be expected to read. When the tense, mood, person, number, etc., of verbs have to be explained constantly and minute grammatical expositions of all sorts and types have to be given as well before the pupil arrives at any idea of what he is confronted with in printed form, the teacher is not teaching him to read but is helping him to solve the meaning of what is written.

In silent reading the pupil must (1) understand what he is reading, and (2) read with a reasonable speed. The following techniques are suggested as suitable for the 8th grade level.

b. Illustrations

(a) In order to see that pupils understand what they are reading the teacher may provide exercises in the form of questions that will serve as instruments of evaluation. These questions are set to reading materials, and pupils cannot answer them without understanding the content of the matter read. In preparing exercises of the kind, the teacher must ensure that there is nothing new in the way of vocabulary or construction, both in the reading material and in the questions. If there is any danger of this sort of activity, which combines learning and evaluation, becoming a test to answer in good English, when this is not the purpose of the exercise, the questions and answers may be done in the vernacular. The danger in this case, however, is that the Japanese questions may give clues to the meaning.

Any advanced form of exercise in understanding is not possible in the first one or two years of English, but a beginning can be made in very simple English.

(b) The teacher asks the pupils to look for a reply to a question on a certain page or paragraph. In doing this, he asks a question, orally or in writing, and then gives the signal for all to start looking for the required answer. Those finding the reply may signify by immediately raising their hands or by standing. This combines comprehension and speed, and the game-like element is a good impetus to this learning activity.

"The class may be divided into teams, and the side on which every one is first standing is declared the winning team”. 4

In order to make the activity fair to every pupil the reading matter should be new, though, of course, based on matter already mastered.

(c) There are reading activities combining written work, but these may be grouped under the category of written work, especially in the beginning stage where there is little reading to do.

( ) Finding Facts in Reading Material to Fit Answers to Questions

a. Explanation

Broadly divided, reading activities fall into two types: reading for information and reading for pleasure.

A number of questions may be set for which the answers must be provided upon reading a set material. The answers may require the mere checking of the correct reply among a choice of statements placed in groups, or require the checking of he true or false statement. This is an activity used a great deal in evaluating comprehension, but is equally useful in teaching to read and to look for information.

b. Sample

Sample text:

“What is coal? Coal is a form of wood. Coal is wood which has been changed into the form of stone. Thousands of years ago there were great forests on the earth. The trees died. They fell down. The wood lay on the ground. It became covered with earth. The trees of the old forest lay under the ground. The trees lay there for thousands of years. After a long time the wood was changed; it became black; it became hard. It became coal. Coal is wood which has been changed by time into a hard and black form like stone.

"For what is coal used? When you light a fire, what do you burn in the fire? Do you burn coal? This morning you lit a fire: did you put coal on the fire? In most countries coal is used for cooking and for making the houses warm.

“Coal is not only used for burning; it is also used for many other things.

“Put coal in a closed box with no air and make the box very hot. The coal cannot burn, for it has no air. Coal-gas comes out of it. The coal-gas is put into pipes. Pipes take the coal-gas to people’s houses. People burn coal-gas for light. People also use coal-gas in their kitchens for cooking. Coal-gas is useful, for it is easy to light a gas-fire; but it takes a long time to make coal burn in a coal fire”. 5

(Note: At the bottom of page 76, from which the extract is taken, it is stated: "You now know 750 words.")

b. Sample exercise set on text:

To each of the following questions, based on die above text, are a number of answers. In each case place a circle around the letter (or letters) which is (are) followed by the correct answer (or answers).

 

1. What became

covered with

earth?

a. Coal became covered with it.
b. Wood became covered with it.
c. A form of stone became covered with it.

2.For what is coal used? a. It is used for cooking.
b. It is used for making rooms cool.
c. It is used for making houses warm.

Etc.

( )Using Tables of Contents, Indexes, and Glossaries

Pupils in the 8th grade can hardly be expected to know enough English to do much in this field. All that can be done is a beginning in a very elementary way. If there is no real need for using a glossary for instance, such a need can be created and the pupils may be taught to use one. In the initial stage all that can be expected may be to find words by familiarizing them with the alphabetical arrangement of a glossary or index.

The use of tables of contents, indexes, and glossaries is very important, and these things appear much more frequently in books published in Britain or America than those published here. It would be foolish to look for some information in a book by turning over its pages when there is a fairly detailed table of contents or, better still, an index. Unless there is a children’s encyclopedia in English, or something of the kind, it may be impossible to teach the use of an index in the 8th grade, in which cases such exercises would have to be postponed until a need arose at a more appropriate time.

( )Using the Dictionary

a. Explanation

The use of the dictionary should increase as the pupils progress in their knowledge of English. Conversely, it might be said that there is something wrong in the method of teaching if from the earliest stages the pupils are constantly required to look up the meanings of words and phrases in a dictionary. The reason is that the pupils’ knowledge of English is insufficiently advanced for them to make an effective use of such a reference book, and that the teaching of meanings by the use of the dictionary is only one of a number of ways, and by no means the best way, in the early stages.

However, a beginning may be made in the 8th grade by teaching how to look up words by explaining the alphabetical arrangement of words.

If the pupils have acquired a reading knowledge of phonetic symbols such as are used in the great majority of English dictionaries published in this country, they can be encouraged to look up the pronunciation of words, with a warning however that in the case of words with strong and weak forms (See Appendix II, §IV,4, 5), pronunciation is influenced by stress and non-stress.

The pupils cannot be expected to have a very good idea of the differences between head words and derivatives. In fact, they cannot make a very full use of a dictionary. However, they can be taught the alphabetical arrangement of words, and the following type of exercise may be useful.

b. Sample

Re-arrange the following words in an alphabetical order:

meat

meet

interest

plan

sail

happy

usual

sale

play

grow

attend

rain

late

plans

road

coal

girls

nothing

cup

both

glad

ant

eat

pipe

 

( ) Reading for Pleasure

A beginning can be made in reading for pleasure by providing literature in the class or school library written in a language and vocabulary that can be understood with very little effort on the part of the pupils. Much reading is done for the sheer pleasure of it in one's own language and, if this can be done in a foreign language too, it will be a tremendous stimulus and an asset to reading. For a list of suggested literature, see the list in the chapter entitled, “Sources of Curriculum Materials and Their Grade Placement.”

( ) Reading Newspapers and Weeklies

See under this heading in the 7th grade grogram.

In the 8th grade this experience may be developed further, such literature being brought into the classroom for reading and discussion.

( ) Reading Books and Magazines

See under the heading, “reading Newspapers and Weeklies.”

( ) Keeping an English Scrapbook

See under this heading in the 7th grade program.

The activity can be carried on with nateria1s of 8th grade level.

( ) Reading Biographies

In the 8th grade a biography may appear here and there in the textbook. There can be no reading of the kind that may be expected of an 11th or 12th grader, where oral preparation may be to a large extent, or wholly, unnecessary. In short, a pupil cannot be expected to read on his own by consulting a dictionary or some other reference works. Consequently, a thorough oral preparation by the teacher must precede any reading of a biography. If however too much time is spent beforehand in discussing the life of the person described, it will take away from the interest and freshness of the text to a very great extent, so that care should be taken in regard to the manner of the oral introduction.

All sorts of oral and written exercises may accompany the reading of a biography.

( ) Reading Short Stories and Fiction

The principles mentioned under the heading, "Reading Biographies," apply to this activity.

( ) Reading Plays or Drama

This type of activity is excellent in enhancing interest and skill in carrying on conversational English. The more the pupils can imagine themselves to be the characters in the play or drama the greater will be the benefits derived, since a language is a living thing and can best be learned in life-like situations.

The pupils may be divided into groups, each group representing a character, and read in unison. Later, they may read individually under the teacher's guidance as in all cases. The next step would be to have them take positions suitable to the characters and read their respective parts. This can be followed by acting with the text in hand, the final stage being the play itself.

( ) Reading Poetry

The principles mentioned under the same heading in the 7th grade program apply to the 8th grade.

( ) Building a Classroom and School Library

See under this heading in the 7th grade program. In the 8th grade more time may be spent in this type of experience because of the greater amount of reading done than in the 7th grade.

( ) Finding Books and Other Things in a Library

As the pupils learn to use a glossary or a dictionary they will be able with equal ease to find books and other materials arranged in alphabetical order.

The pupils should be taught to find things by going through index cards and all other routine connected with the borrowing and returning of books.

C. Chiefly Writing

( ) Drilling in Handwriting

See under the same heading in the 7th grade program.

As mere drill in handwriting is apt to become extremely dry with most pupils, it would do well to have these drills as needs arise, as when there are occasions for them (1) to make signs for use in School, (2) to compose notices for the bulletin board, (3) to keep a dairy, (4) to write a letter, etc. Such activities will also acquaint the pupils with the conventional forms, spacing, and so forth, required in each case.

( )Copying Words, Phrases, and Sentences from the Blackboard

See under the same heading in the 7th grade program.

It might be added here that such an activity should be meaningfu1, the experience being integrated with the rest of the program. Little benefit can be looked for through isolated exercises in copying intended to develop skill in this activity, which would end in drudgery.

( ) Taking Dictation

The principles mentioned under the same heading in the 7th grade program apply to he 8th grade.

( ) Writing Answers to Oral and Written Questions

See under this heading in the 7th grade program.

( ) writing from Memory, with and without Tips

See under this heading in die 7th grade program.

( ) Describing Objects, Pictures, Maps, and Actions in Writing

There is no basic difference between an oral and a written description.

See under "Describing Objects, Pictures, and Actions Orally” in the 7th grade program and under " Describing Objects, Pictures, Maps, and Actions Orally " in the 8th grade grogram.

Ability to write such descriptions on paper, even though in the style of the rather mechanical "conventional conversation", is a necessary step leading to the writing of compositions.

( ) Learning to Spell, Orally and in Writing

See under this heading in the 7th grade program.

See also under “Playing Suitable Word and Other Games" at the end of this program.

( ) Learning to Use Punctuation Marks and Capitals Correctly

a. Explanation

Both punctuation marks and capitals will have to be treated as elements strange to Japanese pupils, since in Japanese punctuation marks are practically, and capitals are altogether, non-existent.

Teachers should be aware of the fact that punctuation marks may be divided into two broad categories:

(1) those used grammatically, that is, according to the logic of the language, and

(2) those used according to the rhetorical nature of the speech.

It should also be noted that there is (1) heavy punctuation and (2) light punctuation, and that when there are two conflicting schools in regard to certain types of punctuation, it is not good to mix the two.

Grammatical punctuation affects the meaning of the language.

For instance:

My brother who had been in New York for some time arrived yesterday.

My brother, who had been in New York for some time, arrived yesterday.

do not mean the same thing. In the first example, who is not separated by a comma from brother, and so modifies the noun for which it stands. The insinuation is that the speaker has another brother or other brothers. In the second example, on the other hand, the who clause is set off by commas. Here is no insinuation that there might be another or other brothers, since the who clause constitutes a remark indirectly related to the sentence: " My brother arrived yesterday," which could not stand alone in the first example given above. If commas are used and the speaker has two or more brothers, he should say: One of my brothers, who had been in New York for some time arrived yesterday.

Rhetorical punctuation is used affectively, as witness the difference between the following two examples:

He left by the nine o’clock train; he was in a hurry.

He left by the nine o’clock train. He was in a hurry.

Here is a sentence punctuated in two ways:

Jane, Jim, and John came to see us yesterday.

Jane, Jim and John came to see us yesterday.

There is no room to go into a discussion of the difference. The examples are presented to show that one type of punctuation should be followed consistently.

With the use of capitals, too, a writer should be consistent. He should not, for instance, capitalize the word government in one place and not do so in another.

Samples are given below to illustrate the type of exercises that may be given.

b. Samples

Punctuate the fo11owing sentences, putting in capitals were you think necessary.

1. i am delighted to meet you said john to jane.

2. mr smith is leaving for australia tomorrow i believe.

3. o cried out mrs green that cant be true.

4. harry john and george were here only a few minutes ago.

( ) Learning to Use Abbreviations Correctly

There are two schools in writing abbreviations. The first of these schools, and the older, places a full stop indiscriminately: Capt., Mr., Mrs., etc., Dr., Chap., pt. The second of these schools distinguishes between abbreviations and contractions. According to this second school, words such as: Mr., Mrs., Dr., and pt., are contractions, because they are contracted forms of these words with some or all of the letters other than the first and last ones omitted; while words such as: Capt., etc., and Chap., are abbreviations, because the latter part of these words is missing. The second school places full stops only after abbreviations, so that forms such as Mr., Mrs., Dr., and pt., which are treated as contractions, have no full stops. Thus: Mr, Mrs, Dr, and pt.

This omission of the coma after “contractions" is recommended even by authorities in conservative England and is practiced by a number of people.

The thing to remember is to follow one of the two schools, as in the case of punctuation marks, when confronted with a choice between any two systems. This does not mean that the teacher should force his pupils to follow what he has preference for, but that the pupils should be taught to be consistent.

( ) Learning to Keep a Reasonable Margin and to Observe Similar Conventional Practices

The keeping of a reasonable margin, he indenting of the first line of a paragraph, proper spacing between the lines, and such conventional practices can be pointed out in the course of all written work requiring such things. All such practices are important, and careful attention should be paid to details of the kind.

( ) Making Signs for Use in School

This kind of activity can be done in conjunction with drills in writing print (or manuscript) style script. It will give meaning and impetus to the drill, especially when the school is putting on a public program and inviting guests.

( ) Composing Notices for the Bulletin Board

a. Explanation

This is a useful activity and one which is not too difficult. The pupils can put up an English version of a notice in Japanese or, in the case of the English course, compose notices in English alone.

b. Samples

LOST AND FOUND: A fountainpen with a wide gold nib.

SPORTS: There will be a basket-ball practice on Tuesday afternoon immediately after school.

ENGLISH: There will be a puppet play in the auditorium at 10 o'clock on Thursday morning. Parents and friends are all invited.

( ) Learning Written Composition

See under this heading in the 7th grade program.

In the 8th grade a beginning may be made in composing short paragraphs.

( ) Keeping a Diary

a. Explanation

Oral composition, where the subject is largely confined to things pertaining to the home and the school, should be of help in the art of writing a diary.

If it is not possible or advisable at this stage of progress to use the diary style, the ordinary style will do.

b. Samples

Ordinary style-

Tues., May 7th. I got up at six o’clock and had breakfast at half past six. I left the house with my sister at seven, and reached school at ten to eight. Our English lesson was unusually interesting, and we all laughed at the three dialogues and the little puppet play. Played football after school. Etc.

Diary style-

Tues., May 7th. Got up at six (o'clock) and had breakfast at half past six. Left the house with my sister at seven, and reached school at ten to eight. Our English lesson was unusually interesting, and we all laughed at the three dialogues and the little puppet play. Played football after school. Etc.

( ) Writing Letters

a. Explanation

Only the simplest informal letters can be expected in the 8th grade. The Japanese custom of referring to the season of the year in the first few lines does not apply to English letters. In fact, the language and style of informal letters is very simple in English. One writes in a conversational style, and that is regarded these days as the best style to follow. Consequently, the pupils can be taught to write down just what they would like to and can say. If it is impossible to correspond with pupils abroad because of the elementary knowledge of English acquired, correspondence may be carried on with those in a neighboring school, or even among the members of the class.

In the earliest stages the pupils may follow the bare minimum in matters of convention. For example, they might omit their address at the top right-hand corner, writing only the date.

b. Sample

June 5 1950
Dear Fumio,
 I am going for a swim on saturday afternoon.
Won't you come, too? I don't think the water will
be too cold. Please let me know if you can come or
not. You know the place. It is where we went last
summer and had lots of fun. If you can come and
if the weather is fine, I will meet you at the same
place at half past one.
Your friend,
Kazuo

 

( ) Translation from Japanese into English

a. Explanation

See under this heading in the 7th grade program.

Give the approximate Japanese equivalents of English expressions and get the pupils to write these down. After a few weeks ask them to reproduce the English that had been learned through referring to the Japanese translation.

D. Playing Suitable Word and Other Games.

Spelling Relay-

Divide the class into two or more teams. Read out from a prepared list a word to be spelt. From each team a pupil will go up to the blackboard and write it out. The teacher will then read out the next word on his list, and the pupil coming next in the prearranged order will go up to the blackboard and write it beneath the first word. This is continued till all the words on the list have been read out. Give a point to each word spelt correctly and score.

In the case of a word having a homonym such as, red (read), or seen (scene), the teacher should give the word in the context. For instance, “Seen as in We have seen it.

Spell Down-

Arrange the class in a row, designating one end as the top and the other as the bottom of the line. Read out a word from a list of words to be spelt. The pupil at the top of the line will spell it out orally. If he succeeds he will stay where he is and the next word on the list will go to the nest in the row. If the first pupil fails he goes to the bottom of the line, and and the pupil next to him will head the row. The pupils are expected to make an attempt in the order in which they are arranged in a row.

Another way to play this game is to divide the class into two teams, and to have each team form a row as in the first instance. The teams will face each other; and when a word is read out by the teacher the pupil at the top of the line in the beginning team will spell it out. If he succeeds, he will score a point for his team. If he fails, the pupil heading the line in the opposing team will make an attempt. If he succeeds, he will score a point for his team. If he fails, the second pupil in the other team will make an attempt. A pupil misspelling a word is not in this case sent to the bottom of his row. He simply fails to score a point for his team.

When the list has been exhausted, the points gained by each team are added up, and the team having the greater number of points becomes the winning team.

The following illustration will show the arrangement of the team and the order in which the turns are taken.

TeamA      
  top   bottom
TeamB      

Living Alphabet-

The players are divided into two rows, constituting opposing teams, and sit or stand facing each other, the distance between the teams being about ten or fifteen feet. Each pupil is given a letter of the alphabet written in block capital on a square cardboard. The teacher reads out a word from a prepared list that can be spelt out with the letters in hand. When a word is read out, those pupils having the letters of the word rush to a designated place and stand in a row, holding up the cards so as to spell the word that has been read out. The team first succeeding in the attempt scores a point.

When the list has been exhausted the points are added up, and the team with the greater number of points becomes the winning team.

The following illustration will show the arrangement of the teams and the positions of the respective spelling lines.

Team A

Team B

1 F.G. French, The Teaching of English Abroad, Oxford University Press, London, 1948, pp. 110 and 112-3

2 For Elementary Conversational Formulas See H.E. Palmer, Conversational English, Kaitakusha, Tokyo, 1948,pp.65-89

3 D.H. Stott, Language Teaching in the New Education, University of London Press Ltd., London, pp. 62-3

4 L.W.Leavitt, The teaching of English to Foreign Students, Longmans, Green & Co., London, New York, Toronto, 1940, Reprinted 1941 and 1946, p.49

5 Michael West, The, New Method Readers for students of English, Alter- native Edition, Reader II, Longmans, Green & Co., London, New York, Toronto, Calcutta, Bombay, Madras, 1942, pp. 75-6

3. Pupil Experiences in Grade 9

A. Chiefly Oral

( ) Describing Objects, Pictures, Maps, Charts, and Actions Orally

a. Explanation

See under similar headings in the 7th and 8th grade programs. In the 7th grade both maps and charts are omitted, maps being added in the 8th grade and charts in the 9th.

A short list of things considered as suitable for the 9th grade is given below by way of suggestion:

(a) school building (g) the four seasons
(d) shops (h) furniture
(c) one’s home (i) hobbies
(b) members on one’s family (j) vehicles
(e) weather (k) animals
(f) sports   etc.

Only the simplest description can be reasonably expected.

If there are temperature or weather charts the pupils can be taught to describe them in English.

b. Sample

Describing a temperature chart:-

Now, everybody, please take a look at this chart. Is it a weather chart or a temperature chart? (It's a temperature chart.) Temperatures for which months does it show? (For April, May, and June.) What is the highest temperature recorded? What is the lowest temperature recorded? What is the hottest day on record? Who prepared this chart? Etc.

( ) Asking and Answering Questions

a. Explanation

See under this heading in the 8th and 7th grade programs.

If the pupils have become sufficiently proficient in asking and answering questions, they may be taught an art which does not strictly come under what is designated by the above heading. The art comprises verbal reactions to remarks or statements made by another peroson.1 Some of the easier types that may be possible in the 9th grade are given below.

b. Sample

1. A: I wonder if it is true.
    B:I think it is.
2. A: I should like to go there.
    B:So should I.(meaning, I see that it is.)
3. A: This is yours.
    B:So it is.(meaning, I see that it is.)
4. A: We shall be late if we don't hurry.
    B:Oh, do you think so?

( ) Learning Oral Composition

The principles and techniques mentioned under the same heading for the 7th grade hold equally well for the 9th grade. The difference would lie in the introduction of additional structural patterns, tenses, and ways of expression of 9th grade level.

In the 9th grade the pupils may be trained to compose matter based on simple topics that would require the composing of a number of related sentences one after another. This can be done, for instance, in the describing of objects, pictures, maps, charts, and actions, which subject is dealt with under a previous heading.

( ) Making Announcements, Including Items on a Program

See under this heading in the 8th grade program.

( ) Carrying on Class Conversation (Conventional Conversation)

See under this heading in the 7th grade program.

See also under all the foregoing headings in the 9th grade program. All the learning experiences prior to those under the above heading in the 7th and 8th grade programs, which form some of the bases of this work, should be restudied by the teachers.

( ) Carrying On Conversations Based on Text, One Pupil with Another

See under this heading in the 7th grade program.

The main difference between the 7th and 8th grade programs and the 9th grade program would be in the more advanced nature of the language and content.

( ) Carrying Conversation Apart from Text

See under this heading in the 7th grade program.

The first of the activities mentioned, that is learning English through actions, does not appear in the 9th grade program.

( ) Repeating Words, Phrases, and Sentences after a Model

See under this heading in the 7th and 8th grade programs.

With growth in knowledge and skill in this activity more and more stress should be laid on intonation, a subject which cannot be dealt with effectively in a short space. Teachers are referred to Appendix, II, ''Systems of Phonetic and Tonetic Notation and Some Problems of Connected Speech," and to the chapter in Volume II of this series devoted to the teaching of pronunciation, intonation, etc.

( ) Reciting Word-Groups, Idiomatic Expressions, and Sample Sentences

a. Explanation

See the explanation given under this heading in the 7th grade program.

Many common expressions can be added in the 9th grade, and the pupils can be regarded as better prepared than in the first two years of English for idiomatic expressions, as they can use them alongside the greater variety of structural patterns which they will have mastered.

The following is a sample list of the various common uses of the word matter.

b. Sample

1. What's the matter with...?

2. It doesn't matter if...

3. As a matter of fact,…

4. I'll take up the matter...

(Note: An idiomatic dictionary will serve as a good reference for the teacher.)2

( ) Singing Songs

a. Explanation

See the explanation given under the heading entitled “Singing Simple Songs Accompanied with Memorizing and Reciting Simple Poems” in the 7th grade program.

b. List of Songs

The following songs are suggested as suitable for the 9th grade:

Home, Sweet Home (Bishop)

Auld Lang Syne (Robert Burns-Scottish folk song)

Stars of the Summer Night (Longfellow-Woodbury)

Lullaby (Brahms)

Aloha Oe (Bunting-Liliuokalani)

( ) Memorizing and Reciting Poems or Given Texts

See the explanation given under the heading entitled “Singing Simple songs Accompanied with Memorizing Simple Poems” in the 7th grade program.

In the 9th grade some of the simplest characteristics of poetry may be pointed out, such as the meter and the rhyme. A simple comparison with rhythm in Japanese waka, haiku or modern verse should help in impressing the difference between stress accent and pitch accent. This will also serve as a preparation for studying modern literary style in the 10th grade.

( ) Listening to Phonograph Records

See under this heading in the 7th grade program.

( ) Listening to the Radio

What is said under this heading in the 7th grade program applies to the 9h grade, except for the fact that radio English lessons are generally much more suited to the 9th than to either the 7th or 8th grade. If there is a program specially prepared to supplement teaching in the 9th grade and the pupils have advanced sufficiently in English, this will be all the more true.

( ) Engaging in School Broadcasts

See under this heading in the 7th and 8th grade programs.

( ) Listening to Talkies

What has been said about listening to the radio applies to talkies, except that in the case of talkies the pictures help to convey an idea of what is being said. But this “except” becomes greater as one progresses in the knowledge of English, so that “as an aid to learning the cinema even now can put the gramophone, the radio, the picture-book−almost any book−in the Shade.... There is no better barrier-smasher than this−except, of course, actual residence among those native speakers.”3

( ) Dramatizing Stories, Including Dialogues

See under this heading in the 8th grade program.

In the 9th grade the pupils will have read or be reading more stories than in the 8th grade, so that attempts might be made to dramatize those stories which (1) are interesting to dramatize and (2) contain much conversational matter. If the textbook used contains one or two plays, they may serve as models as regards style of writing and arrangement.

No sample is given here because that would take up too much space.

( ) Performing puppet Pl y3

See under this heading in the 8th grade, program and under “Dramatizing Stories, Including Dialogues” in the 8th and 9th grade programs.

( ) Putting On a kamishibai

The kamishibai offers an excellent stimulus for translating from Japanese into English, and for putting the English into an interesting and entertaining use. In case a story or a dialogue is taken directly from the textbook or some English book there will be no need for this translation. Instead a little rewriting might have to be done. The drawings can be done by the pupils themselves.

No sample will be given here as the technique is well known.

( ) Putting On a Program for Another Class, School, and Parents

The principles mentioned under the same heading for the 7th grade apply to the 8th and 9th grades. In the 9th grade, the learning and practice activities will naturally be of a more advanced nature. See especially the explanations under “Dramatizing Stories, Including Dialogues”, “Performing Puppet Plays”, and “Putting On a Kamishibai”.

( ) Learning Greetings and Set Expressions

a. Explanation

See under this heading in the 7th and 8th grade programs.

Expressions in common use of all types may be learned in the 9th grade. Many of these are not collocational,4 but have come to be used so widely as practically to be regarded as set expressions.

b. Samples

1. Where did you get that?

2. I don't mind.

3. Can I do anything for you?

4. I think that'll do.

5. I'm afraid it can't be helped.

6. I shouldn't worry if I were you.

7. We'll talk about it another time.

8. How about a cup of tea?

9. You must be feeling pretty tired.

10. What's the matter?

11. May I interrupt a minute?

12. Would you mind if I opened the window?

13. That's awfully nice of you.

14. Have you seen my suitcase anywhere?

15. Suppose we go there at once.

16. I'm expecting Mr K at any moment.

17. I'm looking forward to the trip.

Etc.5

( ) Performing Introductions

a. Explanation

See under this heading in the 7th and 8th grade programs. More conversational matter might be included in and follow the introduction in the 9th grade.

 

b. Sample

A: Mr Thomas, may I introduce Mr Yamada, whom I have known for many years?

or:   A: Mr Thomas, may I introduce Mr Yamada, who is a very good friend of mine?

(Following the preliminaries)

 B: How long have you bee in _____________ ?

 C: Just six years and a half.

 B: I suppose you are engaged in some business.

 C: I am a banker.

 B: How do you find business these days?

 C: Not particularly bright.

 Etc.

( ) Conversing on the Telephone

a. Explanation

See under this heading "Carrying On (Simple) Conversations on the Telephone" in the 7th and 8th grade programs.

Some of the conventional expressions may be taught.

( ) Giving and Taking Directions

a. Explanations

See under this heading in the 7th and 8th grade programs.

A further activity, which is a variety of this one, may be added. With such activities as the describing of maps and charts introduced in the 9th grade, the pupils may be led to give and take directions. The teacher or a pupil might ask how to get to a certain place, and the directions be given. In the initial stage only those questions which would require very simple directions in the reply may be posed.

b. Sample

A: Could you tell me the way to the station?

B: Certainly. Go straight along this road for about a hundred yards till you come to a grocer's on your left. Turn to the left and you will see it right in front of you.

A: Could you tell me where he principal’s office is?

B: Yes, sir. Go down these stairs. Turn to the right when you reach the bottom of the stairs. Go along the corridor, and you will find it on the left-hand side.

( ) Inviting and Visiting English-Speaking People

a. Explanation

If there are English-speaking people available and willing to come and give a short talk to the pupils or to converge with them, it would do well to invite them. Such an event would offer a real opportunity for coming in direct contact with people whose language is being studied. If even the simplest kind of English spoken tends to be baffling to the majority of the pupils because of inevitable differences between it and what they are accustomed to hearing, the school might arrange to have a good interpreter put what is being said into Japanese. Another way to help convey the meaning of what is said in English is to have the Japanese come before the English, a thing that can be done by arrangement with the speaker beforehand. Giving an idea of what is coming by first saying the thing in the vernacular is a technique that has met with success when used by competent teachers of language.

If there are English-speaking people that are glad to have the pupils pay them a visit, this too will prove valuable. The pupils should be very courteous, as people are often sensitive about having people they do not know call on them, especially in groups. It would be advisable at all times to make arrangements as to topics beforehand, so that both the visitors and the person visited might know what to look for and what to do. Contrary to Japanese custom first visits are short, generally being about fifteen to twenty minutes. Also be punctual.

b. Suggested Topics (American or British)

(a) table manners

(b) plan of a home

(c) outdoor etiquette

(d) Christmas

(e) games

(f) town (country) life

(g) clothing

(h) railways

(i) famous people

(j) climate

( ) Making Short Prepared Speeches

a. Explanation

Only something very short and easy should be attempted. For instance, if the pupils are taught to write a paragraph or two, and these are suitable for delivery, they can be encouraged to memorize what they have written and to deliver the same. The usual "Mr Chairman (Madam Chairman), ladies, and gentlemen” can be used.

If the pupils are required to do too much, that may result in discouragement, so that in the beginning only some of the simplest rules such as a pleasant voice, easy posture, might be observed.

b. Suggested Topics

(a) How to Spend One’s Evenings Profitably.

(b) Value of Being Able to Speak (Understand, Read, Write) English

(c) Need of a Library

(d) Why One Should Have Hobbies

(e) How to Keep the Classroom Neat

(f) Value of Clubs

(g) Why We Should Have a School Newspaper

(Note: If the pupils find it difficult to write with any confidence, a beginning might be made by memorizing something suitable from the textbook or some other source.)

B. Chiefly Reading

( ) Reading Words, Phrases, and Sentences Describing Objects, Persons, and Places in a Picture

See under this heading in the 7th grade program.

With a beginning made in the use of encyclopedias and other reference books an opportunity naturally offers itself for further developments in activities of this type. Encyclopedias can be those specially prepared for English-speaking children, which are excellent courses of information.

( ) Reading from Prepared Mimeographed Materials

See under this heading in the 7th and 8th grade programs.

( ) Reading from Materials Written by Pupils

See under this heading in the 7th and 8th grade programs.

Letters and brief articles may be exchanged for further activities in this field

( ) Reading from the Textbook

See under this heading in the 7th and 8th grade programs.

To oral preparation preceding oral reading may be added preparatory activities in the way of reading and writing activities. This means that words, phrases, or constructions appearing in the reading text with which the pupils will be confronted for the first time will be taught through oral as well as reading and writing activities before the pupils are expected to read. It is by carefully planned preliminary work that what is stated under this heading in the 8th grade program is realized. Need for this preliminary work does not exclude the advisability or need for learning activities following the reading of the text.

( ) Reading Aloud in Unison and Individually

See under this heading in the 7th grade program.

( ) Reading Parts Spoken by Characters in a Story

See under this heading in the 8th grade program.

( ) Engaging in Silent Reading

See under this heading in the 8th grade program.

( ) Finding Facts in Reading Material to Fit Answers to Questions

See under this heading in the 8th grade program.

The material of course should be of 9th grade level. The activity may be integrated with leaning to use tables of contents, indexes, and glossaries.

( ) Reading for Information in General

This can be done in a number of ways. (1) The pupils may be given a selection to read and asked to give a gist in English or in the vernacular of what they have read. (2) The pupils may be given a selection to read and asked to write in order the key points of the information contained. (3) The pupils may, as in the case of “'Finding Facts in Reading Material to Fit Answers to Questions” be provided with true-false, multiple-choice, or completion tests upon reading a selection. (4) The pupils may be asked to state orally some of the points they have noted in the course of their reading.

( ) Using Tables of Contents, Indexes, and Glossaries

See under this heading in the 8th grade program.

Growth in the ability to recognize the alphabetical arrangement of words in indexes, glossaries, and dictionaries acquired in the 8th grade should facilitate further activities in this field. New learning activities in the use of encyclopedias and other reference books should serve as further occasions and stimulus for training in this skill.

( ) Using the Dictionary

In the 9th grade the pupils might be given a definite start (1) in looking up derivatives under head words, (2) getting acquainted with such abbreviations as adj., conj., fem., n., ad., adv. sing., pl., prep.,vi.,vt., (3) in finding the correct structural patterns in which words function, (4) to discriminate between dictionaries that give only definitions and those that give sample sentences showing how they may be used.

( ) Using Encyclopedias and Other Reference Books

a. Explanation

If the school has no set of children's encyclopedia it would do well to try and procure one as soon as it is reasonably possible.

The pupils should be shown (1) how the articles are arranged, (2) the reason for and the meaning of the initialing of each volume, (3) how to use the index, and (4) how to find data with little difficulty.

A number of questions may be set and the pupils asked to give the pages on which information is found.

b. Sample Questions

(a) What is the weather like in winter in the British Isles?

(b) What kind of man was Tennyson?

(c) What are some of Edison's inventions?

(d) How do the Eskimos live?

Those marked (b), (c), and (d) would be quite simple to find, as one would respectively look under Tennyson, Edison, and Eskimo. But in the case of (a), looking up the word Weather may lead to a statement such as: See under Climate.

( ) Reading for Pleasure

See under this heading in the 8th grade program.

For a list of suggested literature, see the list in the chapter entitled, '' Sources of Curriculum Materials and Their Grade Placement. "

It may do well to start a reading dub.

( ) Reading Newspapers and Weeklies

See under this heading in the 7th and 8th grade programs.

English newspapers and weeklies specially prepared for children of 9th grade level might be brought into the classroom and the material be used in the manner in which textbooks are.

( ) Reading Books and Magazines

See under the heading, '' Reading Newspapers and Weeklies."

( ) Keeping an English Scrapbook

See under this heading in the 7th grade program.

The activity can be carried on with materials of 9th grade level, and they should serve to enliven written work.

( ) Reading Biographies

See under this heading in the 8th grade program.

The principles apply to the 9th grade.

( ) Reading Short Stories and Fiction

The principles mentioned under the heading, "Reading Biographies", in the 8th grade apply to this activity.

( ) Reading Plays or Drama

See under this heading in the 8th grade program.

( ) Reading Poetry

The principles mentioned under the same heading in the 7th grade program apply to the 9th grade.

Unless the pupils acquired fondness for poetry, it would be unwise to treat it except as a means of teaching the language.

( ) Building a Classroom and School Library

See under this heading in the 7th grade program.

The pupils and teachers may find out what types of literature suitable for the 9th grade are available, compile a list of such materials, and work toward procuring them.

( ) Finding Books and Other Things in a Library

See under this heading in the 8th grade program.

C. Chiefly Writing

( ) Taking Dictation

The principles mentioned under the same heading in the 7th grade program apply to the 9th grade.

In the 9th grade the pupil might be asked to insert the necessary or desirable punctuation marks.

( ) Writing Answers to Oral and Written Questions

See under this heading the 7th grade program.

Provide questions to which the pupils can give the answers. This question-answering activity is not intended to test how much the pupils know as regards facts but to train them in the use of the language as speech.

( ) Writing from Memory, with and without Tips

See under this heading in the 7th grade program.

( ) Filling In Blanks Asking for Information

a. Explanation

A beginning may be made in this activity by requiring the pupils to fill in blanks provided for their names, addresses, grades, etc., under designations such as: Name, Address, Grade etc. They may also fill in forms which, when completed, will result in personal histories.

b. Sample

Personal History
Name:

Date of Birth:

Place of Birh:

Father's Name:

Permanent Address:

Present Address:

Education:

Date
Signature

(Filled)

( ) Describing Objects, Pictures, Maps, Charts, and Actions in Writing

There is no basic difference between an oral and a written description.

See under "Describing Objects, Pictures, and Actions Orally" in the 7th grade program and under “Describing Objects, Pictures, Maps, and Actions Orally " in the 8th grade program. Also See under ''Describing Objects, Pictures, Maps, Charts, and Actions Orally" in the 9th grade program.

( ) Learning to Spell, Orally and in Writing.

See under this heading in the 7th grade program.

See also under ''Playing Suitable Word and Other Games" at the end of this and the 8th grade program.

( ) Learning to Use Punctuation Marks and Capitals Correctly

a. Explanation

See under this heading h the 8th grade program.

Beyond what the pupils have learned they might be taught not to place a punctuation mark at the beginning of a line, a common habit derived from the Japanese custom to place a comma or a period at the beginning of a line in printing when there are no more blocks left for a punctuation mark at the end of a line.

b. Sample of Errors

If you are going out

, will you post this letter?

I bought the book at a second

- hand book-store.

( ) Leaning to Use Abbreviations Correctly

a. Explanation

In literary composition and letters abbreviations should be used sparingly. Unfamiliarity with this fact leads, for instance, to the use of an & in place of and, when & is used only in the name of a firm.

A list of abbreviations that may be taught in the 9th grade and a list of words that are spelled out in full according to good modern usage are given below.

b. Lists

(a) List of abbreviations that are always proper:
  Titles: Dr.Mr.Mrs.Messrs. It is better taste to write in full the titles:Reverend,Professor,Honorable especially when only the surname is given:Professor Smith.
  Symbol & in the name of a firm: Yamada & Co; but
 not: Yamada Automobile & Co; because Automobile
 stands for a thing while Co; stands for people.
  A.D.:1579 A.D.;B.C.:500 B.C.;No.:No.51;etc.(the
 last not to be used so often as in Japanese).

Forms such as: GHQ,SCAP,RTO,in which the modern tendency is to omit the periods.

(b) List of expressions which, according to good literary usage, are spelled out in full:

Names of months:January,February,etc.

 In letters too:January,14,1951.

 In newspapers abbreviations may be used:On Nov.7,1951.

Numbers of centuries;...in the twentieth century.

The words page,volume,chapter,chapters, and section in the body of a text; I have read chapters 5 and 6. (Not: Chaps 5 and 6.)

( ) Learning to Keep a Reasonable Margin arid to Observe Similar Conventional Practices

See under the heading in the 8th grade program.

The pupils, because of possible increase in the amount of writing at one time, might be taught to leave a space of an inch or more at the top and the bottom of the sheet. Even if the amount of writing did not require this, the 9th grade would seem suitable for teaching a thing of this kind, because much of the fundamental principles should be learned in the lower secondary stage.

( ) Making Signs for Use in School

See under this heading in the 8th grade program.

( ) Writing Labels and Tags

a. Explanation

The pupils may engage in writing and pasting on or attaching labels and tags in English (1) to show the nature or name of objects or contents and (2) to show ownership or authorship. This could be done in conjunction with learning activities related to these objects.

The activity may receive added impetus if done on the assumption that there would be foreign visitors to some class or school program where objects may be put on display. Any short descriptions, not necessarily labels or tags, should serve to enlighten a foreign visitor arriving at the school on any ordinary day.

It is best to use print script for such things to ensure legibility.

b. Sample

Paper- knife

Taeko Sugawa, 8th grade

Evening Scene in Black and White

Jun Kasuya, 9th grade

4-Tube Radio

Saburo Shiga, 9th grade

First Prize Radio

( ) Composing Notice for the Bulletin Board

See under this heading in the 8th grade grogram.

( ) Learning Written Composition

See under this heading in the 7th grade program.

Add all the other learning activities in writing English introduced in the 9th grade.

( ) Keeping a Diary

See under this heading in the 8th grade program.

( ) Writing Letters

a. Explanation

See under this heading in the 8th grade program.

In the 9th grade the pupils may be taught how to write the addresses in the letter and on the envelope, as well as some of the commoner forms of salutation and complimentary close.

They should also be taught not to have the complimentary close and signature appear alone on a sheet when a letter is carried on to a second or third page.

b. Sample

Addresses in a letter-
 
340 Nagato-ch 4-chme

Suginarni-ku, Tokyo

January 15, 1951

Mr Kazuo Imada

467 Tamba-ch

Shizuoka-shi

 
or:  
 
340, 4-chme Nagato-ch

Suginami-ku,Tokyo

January 15, 1951

Ditto
Salutations-

Dear Mr Nagao,

My dear Mr Nagao,

Dear Nagao, (among intimate friends)

 

Complimentary close-

Your friend,

Your affectionate brother, (among relatives)

Yours sincerely, (Sincerely yours)

Yours truly, (Truly yours)

( ) Contributing English Articles to the School Newspaper or Magazine

a. Explanation

Unless the class were exceptional in English it would not be possible to publish an English paper or magazine of its own without great deal of assistance. What the class could do would be to contribute English articles to the school newspaper or magazine. These may be (1) written work not primarily intended for publication and (2) written work intended for publication.

The pupils could make contributions for the sports, news, or story columns, and these could be very simple and short.

A committee could be formed to study, report on, and implement professional etiquette, judgment, custom, etc. that accompany the profession, such as: tact, good manners, common sense, good judgment, dependability, accuracy, and promptness.

The pupils also could study how to tell a story in a nutshell first and then to go on into details, so that if anything happened to be too long for the space the reader would get the main points of the story even if the latter portions were to be eliminated.

They should learn at least to include the following three points in all items in the nature of news: what, when, and where; why and how being stated when necessary.

b. Sample

(What) There will be a baseball match between A and B class

(when) at 2, o'clock on Wednesday, March 10th

(where) at the Momiji Baseball Diamond.

( ) Translating from Japanese into English

See under this heading in the 7th and 8th grade programs.

Modern methods justify very little translation.

D. Playing Suitable Word and Other Games

See under this heading in the 8th grade program.

The following games are also suggested.

Silent Vowel Spell Down-

The rules are the same as those in Spell Down, with the sole exception that the vowels must not be spelt orally but shown by gestures agreed upon by everybody. For instance, A might be represented by putting one's hands in front of one's face with the tips of the fingers of the right and left hand touching each other and the elbows separated so as to form a pyramid: E might be represented by holding up one hand; I by pointing to an eye or eyes; O by pointing to one's mouth; and U by holding both hands up overhead so as to form the shape of the letter.

Fill Ins-

This is one of the methods of teaching spelling turned into a game. A set of words with which the pupils are expected to be familiar are given in writing, with only the first and last letters written. The pupils are required to fill in the missing letters. In some instances there may be two or more possibilities. Whatever is right may be regarded as acceptable.

The words, with the letters missing, may be written on the blackboard, or they may be mimeographed and distributed face down to the pupils.

The teams may be formed to compete for the greatest number of correct words.

An illustration of a list with the answers is given below:

B--T (BOAT) (BEAT)
S--T (SEAT) (SORT)
W--T (WANT) (WENT) (WHAT)
T--S (THIS) (THUS) (not TOES, which is the
“regular”plural form of TOE.)
B--S (BOSS)
C--E (CARE) (CASE) (CAFE) (CAGE) (CAKE)
(CAME) (CANE) (CAPE) (CAVE) (COME)
(CUTE) etc.

Three-, four-, or five-letter words may be given.

Another way to play the game is to request the pupils to write as many words as they know (if a dictionary is not used) or as many words as they can (if a dictionary is used) within a limited time.

1 For a full study see T. Orde Lee, English “English”, Part II, The Sanseidō Co., Tokyo, Osaka, Copyright, 1932, P. 150 et seq.

2 See Naoe Naganuma, Kontei 3,000 Hyjun Eigo Tango-sh; Kaitakusha, Tokyo, 1947, which is a scientifically prepared list of the commonest 3,000 head words with a number of derivatives together with samples of phrases and idiomatic expressions in common use

3 Charles Duff, How to learn a language, Basil Blackwell, Oxford, 1948, p. 67

4 See chapter entitled ''Gradation of the Language of Teaching Materials",section, '' Non-collocational and Collocational Word Groups"

5 See H. E. Palmer, Conversational English, Kaitakusha, Tokyo, 1947,pp. 135-197

6 See Hori, Pickerling, Hornby, A Complete Guide to English Conversation, Taishkan Shoten, Tokyo. Copyright, 1949, pp. 111, 225, 227