APPENDIXS III

SUGGESTED STANDARDS FOR SELECTION OF

ENGLISH TEXTBOOKS

Textbooks are based on a course of study and only a full study of it will offer a full understanding of standards.

I. Preliminary Remarks

1. Teachers must recognize that in the selection of textbooks they themselves are the judges.

2. They must have in mind in general the aims of education and in particular the objectives of the English course. (See Chap. I.) Special attention is to be paid to individual, social and civic, and vocational needs.

3. Since textbooks are to be primary aids to them in teaching activities, they must pay close attention and give careful consideration to various factors, having in view the particular curriculum of English teaching in a particular school.

4. Under the new textbook authorization system, not all textbooks are of the same quality. Some are barely passable under t he system of evaluation; others are fair or good; others are very good or excellent; and still others are definitely superior. There is no way for evaluators to indicate to teachers which textbooks are superior to others. For this reason, all English teachers must be able to evaluate the textbooks and select the best ones.

II. Over-all Criteria of Selection

The textbook should agree with aims of the English Course.

(Cf. Chap. I.)

1. Aims of the English Program in the Lower Secondary School

A. Over-all Aims:

To acquire a practical basic knowledge of English as gspeechh with primary emphasis on aural-oral skills and the learning of structural patterns through learning experiences conductive to mastery in hearing, speaking, reading, and writing, and to develop as an integral part of the same an understanding of, appreciation for, and a desirable attitude toward the English-speaking peoples, especially as regards their modes of life, manners, and customs.

B. Major Functional Aims:

(1) To develop skills in listening with understanding to English as gspeech.h

(2) To develop skills in oral expressions in English as gspeech.h

(3) To develop skills in reading English as gspeechh with understanding.

(4) To develop skills in writing English as gspeech.h

C. Major Cultural Aims:

To develop an understanding of, appreciation for, and a desirable attitude toward the modes of life, manners, and customs of English-speaking peoples, as an integral part of the English course.

2. Aims of the English Program in the Upper Secondary School

A. Over-all Aims:

To develop skills and knowledge in English as gspeechh on the basis of the foundation laid in the lower secondary school, through learning experiences conducive to mastery in hearing, speaking, reading, and writing, with emphasis on the skills to be developed varying with studentsf and local community needs and interests, and to develop as an integral part of the same an understanding of, appreciation for, and a desirable attitude toward the English-speaking peoples, especially as regards their modes of life, manners, and customs.

B. Major Functional Aims:

(1) To develop stills and knowledge in English as gspeechh such as would be of practical value for those terminating their education at the end of the upper secondary school.

(2) To develop skills and knowledge in English as gspeechh such as would enable those going on into college add university work to listen to with appreciation and to, express themselves effectively in English, orally and in writing.

(3) To develop skills and knowledge in English as gspeechh such as would enable those going on into college and university work to make effective use of matter written in English in their field of study.

(4) To develop skills and knowledge in English as gspeechh such as would enable the graduate of the upper secondary school to read and appreciate standard modern works of literature written in English.

(5) To develop skills and knowledge in English as gspeechh such as would provide those requiring a knowledge of commercial English in college or university work with an all-round knowledge of commercial English.

C. Major Cultural Aims:

To develop in the students as an integral part of the English language program an understanding of, appreciation for, and a desirable attitude toward the English-speaking peoples, especially as regards their modes of life, manners and customs.

III. Direct Factors in Selection Common

to All Textbooks

1. Linguistic Factors

Grading of the Language of Teaching Materials Both Spoken and Written

A. Vocabulary Selection

Control of vocabulary is one of the important factors in scientifically prepared textbooks. However, vocabulary range for each state of learning may differ among various authorities. Consequently, the following table is presented as a rough guide:

 
7th grade

8th grade

9th grade

10th grade

11th grade

12th grade

300\ 600 words

400\ 700 words

500\ 800 words

600\1000 words

700\1500 words

800\1500 words

Words introduced at each stage should appear sufficiently often so that even pupils of moderate ability may be able to read without undue breaks. In the early stages the ideal, according to research, is the introduction of a new word or collocation at6 the rate of about one per 50 words of text.

The grading of vocabulary items (e.g. from concrete to abstract) is of particular importance in the lower secondary school, because in the beginning and the early stages any over-burdening of pupils in the acquisition of a vocabulary will hamper the learning of English as gspeechh in which emphasis is laid on the learning of structural patterns. The vocabulary burden may increase as the pupil acquires a better functional knowledge of English.

B. Style of English

(1) Colloquial standard English in the lower secondary school

(2) Modern literary standard English in the upper secondary school alongside of the colloquial standard

In the beginning course basic linguisticxc materials are repeated at appropriate intervgals, and in various contexts, the matter and organization being so designed as to facillitate transfer form ability to recognizeto ability to express one-self by use of the materials.

C. Sentence Length

There are some standards of gradation in the compilation of materials, of whicch sentence length is one of the factors.

(1) Suggested sentence length for hearing and speaking:

7th grade

8th grade

9th grade

10th grade

11th grade

12th grade

up to 12 words

up to 16 words

up to 20 words

no limit

no limit

no limit

 

(2) Suggested sentence length for reading:

7th grade

8th grade

9th grade

10th grade

11th grade

12th grade

up to 18 words

up to 24 words

up to 30 words

no limit

no limit

no limit

(3) In view of the imp acticability of limiting the number of words in written work, the matter might conform in style and structure to these of speaking materials, with certain exceptions such as in language of diaries, telegrams, etc.

D. Sounds of Speech

It is desirable that the textbooks be provided with special means for teaching pronunciation, dealing with elements of English pronunciation, whether of the word or of the phrase, which are difficult or confusing to Japanese and likely to be misunderstood by a listener. Such sections can be designed with or without the use of phonetic symbols but readings of proper names should not be represented in ordinary kana style. The textbook should be so designed as to be conducive to the teaching of pronunciation and intonation heard in the speech of educated English-speaking peoples.

It must be mentioned that English is to be taught as gspeechh and as it is pronounced and intoned in normal, connected speech, and that here should be no confusing presentation of British and American pronunciation.

2. Cultural Factors

Selection of Contents

The contents should be as follows:

A. The contents of the textbooks should conform with the objectives of education as set forth in the Fundamental Law on Education, such as development of respect for truth and justice befitting citizens of a peaceful state, and a sense of responsibility and due regard for labor.

B. To e contributive to the development of democratic modes of life and to the fostering of an international mind and love of peace.

C. The textbooks should be unbiased in their views. They should be free of passages that might be interpreted as, or savoring of, propaganda either for or against political or religious beliefs, parties, or sects.

Of this category are not those purely objective treatments of beliefs, parties, or sects, or the quoting of matter referring to or emanating therefore for purposes of serving the objectives of the course along democratic and scientific principles. There is no reason why English textbooks should not include recognized classics on literary works dealing with political or religious themes and expressing political or religious points of view, so long as no attempt is made to include a preponderance of materials representing one particular point of view.

D. To be conducive to the understanding of the English-speaking peoples.

(1) What the textbooks aim at giving pupils should be appropriate in view of the objectives specified in the School Education Law and in the English Course of Study.

(2) They should give pupils a knowledge and an understanding of the English-speaking peoples, especially as regards their modes of life, manners, and customs. They should deal with the experiences of the English-speaking peoples, together with their ideas, concepts, sentiments, culture, and democracy.

E. To meet the present social needs.

The materials of the textbooks should be up-to-date and progressive, being contributive to the development of democracy and the promotion of international understanding.

3. Psychological Factors

A. The mental level and emotional development of pupils should be given full consideration; that is, the textbooks should be pupil-centered.

B. Pupil Interest from Linguistic Points of Views

(1) Vocabulary control and gradation, which are means to an end, together with problems peculiar to Japanese students in connection therewith need to be considered:

It must be remembered that-

a. certain words of comparatively low frequency have become Japanized, and that

b. some of the commonest words, such as names of certain tools are not very necessary fro Japanese students.

It should be bone in mind that the various frequency studies vary and that they are not to be considered as being absolute.

(2) Length of sentences is one of the elements, though not the only factor.

(3) Length of selections or portions is another factor in a good textbook, though in taking up each point every other factor must enter in, since again length is not the only factor, especially if the material is interesting and can afford to be rather long.

(4) The subject matter should not be above or below the mental level of the students. Suitable simplified texts are very useful for pupils.

C. The following learning experiences constitute appropriate standards:

Hearing and speaking:

See chapters( IV & V) on Suggested Program, experiences gChiefly Readingh.

Reading:

See chapters (IV & V) on Suggested program, experiences gChiefly Readingh.

Writing:

See chapters (IV & V) on Suggested program, experiences gChiefly Writingh.

It is to be note that the learning experiences appearing in this Course of Study comprise a store-house of experiences from which a teacher may select or adapt, or to which he may add others. Experiences provided or suggested in textbooks should conform to this principle.

4. Organization

A. Organization of teaching materials conducive to the natural and smooth development of learning activities.

In principle the order should be from more common to less common rather than from easier and more regular words and collocations to more difficult and irregular words and collocation.

The materials should be properly related to each other. Such factors as frequency of repetition of common or basic linguistic materials, proportion of new data to old in each lesson, and provision for occasional review of earlier data should be taken into account.

B. Proper quantity and division of teaching materials

The quantity and division of teaching materials should be proper and appropriate. The textbooks should be adaptable to the varying number of hours a week allotted for English teaching. This does not mean, however, that a textbook which may on occasion be covered in less (or more) than the time for which it is intended is for that reason inferior, because a textbook is only one of the mediums of learning experiences relegated to a curriculum, and not a curriculum in itself.

4-hours plus in the lower secondary school

5-hours plus in the upper secondary school

The objectives of learning in each lesson and section should be definite and worth while. The co-ordination of divisions should be appropriate.

C. Proper arrangement of exercises as integral parts of lessons

The arrangement of exercises should be conducive to the mastery of language skills.

5. Other Factors

A. Printing

(1) Legibility

a. Proper size and kinds of types

The sizes and spacing of letters as well as the spacing between the lines should be appropriate. The sizes of letters in lesson titles, bodies of texts, notes, etc., should be of reasonable, legible size. From the point of language teaching it seems better to avoid using big type from the outset which is intended for younger English-speaking children. It is certainly not a mistake for a 7th grade book to use 12 or 10 point type if it does not hinder in any way the question f language teaching.

b. The printing should be clear and distinct. Spelling and syllabification should be correct and uniform. The spelling should conform either to British or American usage, and not be a confusion of the two.

B. Illustrations, including Pictures, Graphs, etc.

(1) Suitability and Serviceability

a. Selection

The illustrations should match the materials which they intend to illustrate. They must serve a direct and definite purpose: this is especially important in the beginning stage. They should not be misleading and should be of interest to pupils.

b. Quantity

In the first half of a 7th grade textbook, it is desirable to have on the average at least one illustration per page; in the latter half, a minimum of one per two pages. As the grades advance, the number of illustrations can be reduced, but even on the upper secondary level there is a need for many illustrations, perhaps at the minimum rate of one per four or five pages.

c. Arrangement

The illustrations should be appropriate as regards their number and distribution.

C. Table of Contents and Notes

Textbooks should always have a table of contents, notes and references where helpful. All of these should be accurate and appropriate.

D. General Appearance and Price

The cover of the textbooks should be attractive and in good taste.

The price of the textbooks should be reasonable.

IV. Factors Peculiar to Readers

1. Pupil Interest from Cultural Points of View

A. The contents should be interesting or be possible of being treated in an interesting way. However, this element of interest and utility, too, must be introduced without sacrificing linguistic considerations.

B. The textbooks should be reasonably well-balanced. That is, not pampering to one nation, group, political or religious beliefs, which is educationally unsound. See III, 2, C.

C. The textbooks should contain a fair variety of material, such as essays, poems, biographies, stories, fiction, etc., or their selections or abridgements without making it a gsportsh book or a gbiographyh book.

2. Variety and Balance of Contents

The materials should be selected on the basis of the pupilsf interest and social needs. Moreover, the ratio of materials should be balanced. It is neither necessary nor desirable that materials selected for textbooks be limited to the so-called gfield of literatureh, especially if the gfield of literatureh is narrowly interpreted. materials by reputable writers from the field of history, geography, travel, nature study, hobbies, science, and many other fields may desirable, so long as these materials are suitable for language teaching.

V. Factors Peculiar to Textbooks for Practical Use

See under gSUGGESTED PUPIL EXPERIENCES IN ENGLSH LANGUAGE, Chiefly Oral, (Chiefly Reading), (Chiefly Writing),h in Chapters IV and V entitled, gSUGGESTED PROGRAM FOR THE LOWER 8UPPER9SECONDARY SCHOOL.h

1. Nature of English

The desired style is in most cases a colloquial standard.

2. Selection of Teaching Materials

The purpose of all linguistic materials must be evident. Materials should be based on pupil experiences.

The amount of matter for translation, if given, should be within reasonable limitations.

3. Suitability to Inductive Teaching

The textbooks should be so designed as to help students to learn grammar and composition inductively, definitions being subsidiary to the lessons.

4. Functional Organization

A. Careful Gradation and Natural Progression

The grading and progression should be carefully considered.

B. Suitable Quantity and Variety of Exercises

C. Co-ordination of Grammar and Composition with other Types of Books.

Everything must be functional, including most certainly, grammar.

Division of English textbooks into Readers, Grammars, and other types of books is purely artificial. Whether in a separate volume or in the same book as the Reader, grammar and composition should be interwoven with the matter in the Reader or other types of language books. To know grammar is to understand and to express oneself effectively, and a good grammar should be designed to this end.

VI. Factors Peculiar to Commercial

English Textbooks

Besides the factors mentioned above, the following should be carefully considered in Commercial English Textbooks.

1. Business Letter Writing

2. Making Out of Bills

3. Much Stress on Spelling, Punctuation, and Sentence Structure

4. All other Business Experiences Suitable to the Upper Secondary School

VII. Factors Peculiar to Copybooks

1. Legibility and General Appearance

A. Legibility

Form, alignment, spacing, slant, line quality, and size are the elements that affect the legibility of handwriting.

(1) The letters should be formed carefully. (Each letter should be made correctly.)

(2) The base of each letter should stand squarely on the line.

(3) The letters and words should be placed so that they appear equidistant.

(4) All letters should have the same slant.

(5) If light and heavy strokes are used, the horizontal and upward strokes heavy.

(6) The letters should be of a size suitable to each stage of learning.

B. General Appearance

The cover of copybooks for handwriting should be attractive and in good taste.

2. Ease of Manipulation

A. The language for handwriting should be practical.

B. Ease of manipulation should be scientically presented.

C. The paper must be of such quality as to permit writing easily with pen and ink.

3. Form of Letters

The letters should be well rounded and have a flowing quality.

VIII. Conclusion

The teachers should pay attention to the various factors mentioned above in the selection of textbooks, but in all cases they must be governed by local needs.

Type (Reader)

Grade

Title of Book

Author

Publisher

Evaluation Table

Excel-

lent

Above

Average

Average

Below

Average

Poor

Over-all Criteria

A. Over-all Aims

@ @ @ @ @

B. Major Linguistic

Aims

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C. Major cultural Aims

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Common Factors

1. Linguistic Factors

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A. Vocabulary Selection

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B. Style of English

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C. Sentence Length

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D. Sounds of Speech

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2. Cultural Factors

B. Fundamental Law

on Education

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A. Democratic Mode of

Life

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C. Unbiased Views

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D. Understanding of

English-Speaking

Peoples

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E. Meeting of the Pre-

sent Needs

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3. Psychological Factors

A. Child Development

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B. Pupil Interest

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C. Minimum Required

Standards (Hearting

and speaking, Read-

ing, and writing)

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4. Organization

A. Development of

learning Activities

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B. Quantity and Divi-

sion

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C. Proper Arrangement

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5. Other Factors

A. Printing

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B. Illustrations, etc.

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C. Table of Contents

and Notes

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D. General Appearance,

Price

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Factors Peculiar to Readers

1. Cultural Points

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2. Variety and Balance of

Contents

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Factors Peculiar to Textbook

for Practical Use.

1. Nature of English

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2. Teaching Materials, its

Selection

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3. Inductive Teaching

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4.Functional Organization

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Factors Peculiar to

Commercial English

1. Teaching Materials

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Factors Peculiar to

Copybooks

1. Legibility

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2. Ease of Manipulation

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3. Form of Letters

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Total

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The Grand total would differ in the case of a reader and that of a textbook for practical use etc.; but this would not matter, since totals for readers would be compared only with those books within the same category.

Factors listed are not of equal importance, but correlation between a reader and a textbook for practical use should be considered.